Assessments and Grading


Summative Evaluation

Occurs at the end of the time period of the course or program. The purpose is to see how effectively the goals were met and whether anything might be changed.


  • Final exam
  • Final research paper

Formative Evaluation

Gathering information about a course or program while it is ongoing. Purpose is to help make decisions about what to do next in curriculum or instruction.


  • Questions during a lesson
  • Group discussion
  • Quiz

Standardized Tests

Tests that are normed for the nation and are developed by specialists. These test are uniformly administered, timed, and scored according to standard procedures.


  • Every child is receiving the same assessment
  • Set standards
  • Helps determine where one child or school is in comparison to other children or schools
  • It is graded by the computer


  • Penalizes those who have not had the same opportunity to preform as others
  • Do not always measure what was taught in class
  • They do not take into consideration the individual child or circumstances

Norm- Referenced Tests

Test results are compared to a group. They measure student-learning progress compared to national groups of test takers.


Test results measure individual progress compared to a criterion. The criterion refers to a learning objective or other type of standard.

Teacher Made Tests

Things to think about when creating an assessment:

  • Determine the skill or behavior to be demonstrated
  • List behaviors that will demonstrate that skill
  • Create the test before teaching the lesson


Evaluation grids listing criteria for evaluation and articulating gradations of quality for each criterion


  • Precision
  • Coherence
  • Clarity
  • Quality Information
  • Guide for Students
  • Fairness


  • Initial time
  • explanation
  • Fulfilling the requirements
  • No quality assurance
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Frog and Toad - Cookies
After watching this short clip work in table groups to:

  • create 1-2 questions for a teacher made assessment
  • what grade level would this be for and why?

In Conclusion

Remember that a grades do not define your students but can be used as tool for both teaching and learning.

How can grades be harmful to students?

What are ways you as a teacher can make them helpful rather than harmful?