Imporatant Information

Who Ebola Affects

Ebola is a disease that affects humans and other primates. The disease is caused by a Ebola virus. In the picture, Bushmen prepare meat for cooking in Ghana. In Africa, wild animals are hunted including fruit bats. The picture shows the fruit bat which is bush meat. In Africa, human consumption of bush meat has been linked to animal-to human transmission of diseases, including Ebola.

How is Ebola spread?

Ebola is spread by direct contact of a contaminated item or surface, blood, body fluids of an infected human or animal.The disease can also be spread by semen or breast milk for several weeks or months. Fruit bats are believed to be the nature carrier. They can spread the virus without being affected by it. Humans become infected by contact with the bats or with a living or dead animal that has been infected by bats. After human infection occurs, the disease may also spread between people. There are some diseases such as malaria, cholera,typhoid fever, meningitis and other viral hemorrhagic fevers that may resemble EVD.

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The Ebola Virus reproduces in many cells, producing large amounts of virus in monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and other cells. The replication of the virus in monocytes triggers the release of high levels of inflammatory chemical signals.

The Ebola virus is believed to infect humans through human contact with mucous membranes or through breaks in the skin. Once infected, endothelial cells( cells that line the inside of our blood vessels), liver cells, and several types of our immune cells such as asmacrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells are the main targets for the infection.


The early symptoms of Ebola virus disease may be similar to other diseases common in Africa, such as malaria and the dengue fever. The symptoms are also similar to those of Marburg virus disease and other viral hemorrhagic fevers.
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People who care for those infected with the Ebola virus should wear protective clothing, masks, gowns, gloves, goggles. The CDC recommends that they do not leave any skin exposed.

Surfaces should be disinfected with alcohol base products, detergents,and bleach.

Monkey Meat and the Ebola Outbreak in Liberia

Important Facts

  • Since 2003 animal outbreaks have been monitored to predict and prevent Ebola outbreaks in humans.
  • To contain an outbreak contact tracing is done. Contact tracing involves finding everyone who has had close contact with the infected individuals and they watch for signs of the illness for 21 days.
  • The Ebola viruses can be eliminated with heat. Heating 30 to 60 minutes at 60 degrees Celsius or boiling for 5 minutes.
  • No specific treatment is currently approved. Making sure the person is hydrated helps.
  • Treatment has been done in America where the infected person was given a blood transfusion from a person who has had the virus, this helps fight the virus with their antibodies that are immune to the Ebola virus.
  • The Ebola virus disease has a high risk of death in those infected.
  • If an infected person survives, their recovery is usually quick and complete.
  • Complicated cases can also include long term problems such as inflammation of the testicles, joint and muscle pain, peeling skin or hair loss.
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1. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae "Ebola virus disease Fact sheet No. 103". World Health Organization. September 2014.

2. ^ Jump up to:a b c Ruzek, edited by Sunit K. Singh, Daniel (2014). Viral hemorrhagic fevers. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. p. 444. ISBN 9781439884294.

3. ^ Jump up to:a b "2014 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa". WHO. 21 April 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.

4. ^ Jump up to:a b "Recommendations for Breastfeeding/Infant Feeding in the Context of Ebola". cdc.gov. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2014.

5. Jump up^ "Guidance for Safe Handling of Human Remains of Ebola Patients in U. S. Hospitals and Mortuaries". Retrieved 10 October 2014.

6. ^ Jump up to:a b "Ebola Viral Disease Outbreak — West Africa, 2014". CDC. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 26 June 2014.

7. Jump up^ "Ebola Response Roadmap Situation Report Update". World Health Organization. 25 October 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2014.

8. ^ Jump up to:a b "CDC urges all US residents to avoid nonessential travel to Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone because of an unprecedented outbreak of Ebola.". CDC. 31 July 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014.

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