government and economics of turkey

by: Anna Catherine Jordan

Government type

parliamentary republic
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Leaders

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan - president

Branches

Executive Branch:


chief of state: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 10 August 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Ahmet DAVUTOGLU (since 28 August 2014); Deputy Prime Ministers Yalcin AKDOGAN (since 29 August 2014), Yildirim Tugrul TURKES (since 29 August 2014), Lutfi ELVAN (since 24 November 2015),Numan KURTULMUS (since 29 August 2014), Mehmet SIMSEK (since 24 November 2015)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament; note - a 2007 constitutional amendment changed the presidential electoral process to direct popular vote; prime minister appointed by the president from among members of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey



Legislative Branch:


description: unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 1 November 2015 (next to be held on June 2019); note - ERDOGAN was unable to form a coalition government and announced on 24 August 2015 that snap elections would be held; DAVUTOGLU formed the interim government

election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 49.5%, CHP 25.3%, MHP 11.9%, HDP 10.8%, other 2.6%; seats by party - AKP 317, CHP 134, MHP 40, HDP 59; note - only parties surpassing the 10% threshold can win parliamentary seats



Judicial Branch:


highest court: Constitutional Court or Anayasa Mahkemesi (consists of 17 members); Supreme Court of Appeals (consists of about 390 judges and organized into 15 divisions with 23 civil and 15 criminal chambers); Council of State (organized into 15 divisions - 14 judicial and 1 consultative – each with a division head and at least 5 members)

judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court members - 3 appointed by the Grand National Assembly and 14 by the president of the republic from among candidates nominated by the plenary assemblies of the high courts (with the exception of the Court of High Accounts), the Higher Education Council, and from among senior government administrators, lawyers, judges and prosecutors, and Constitutional Court rapporteurs; court president and 2 deputy presidents appointed from among its members for 4-year terms; judges appointed for 12-year, non-renewable terms with mandatory retirement at age 65; Supreme Court of Appeals judges appointed by the Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors (SCJP), an independent body of judicial officials; judges appointed until retirement at age 65; Council of State members appointed by the SCJP and by the president of the republic; members appointed for renewable, 4-year terms

subordinate courts: basic (first instance) courts, military courts, specialized courts, including administrative and audit

Economy type

Emerging market economy

GDP

official exchange rate: $722.2 billion

per capita:$20,500

currency

Turkish lira
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population living below poverty

nearly 50% of Turkey’s population is at the poverty line

Top imports

machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment

exports

apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment

Entertainment

Festivals

Camel Wrestling Festival-Selcuk (near Ephesus)(January)

1915 Sea Victory Celebration-Canakkale(March)

Istanbul International Film Festival(April)

Traditional "Mesir" Festival-Manisa(April)

International Children's Day-Ankara (April 23)

paintings

museums

music

The music of Turkey includes diverse elements ranging from Central asian folk music to heavy influences from kurdish music, Arabic music, Byzantine music, greek music, Ottoman music, Persian music, Armenian music, and Balkan music, as well as references to more modern European and American popular music.

sports

Although soccer is the most popular sport in Turkey, basketball, volleyball, handball, track-and-field and wrestling are also popular.

national anthem

Korkma, sonmez bu safaklarda yuzen al sancak
Sonmeden yurdumun ustunde tuten en son ocak.
O benim milletimin yildizidir, parlayacak!
O benimdir, o benim milletimindir ancak!

Catma, kurban olayim, cehreni ey nazli hilal!
Kahraman irkima bir gul... ne bu siddet, bu celal?
Sana olmaz dokulen kanlarimiz sonra helal.
Hakkidir, Hakk'a tapan milletimin istiklal.

Ben ezelden beridir hur yasadim, hur yasarim;
Hangi cilgin bana zincir vuracakmis? Sasarim!
Kukremis sel gibiyim, bendimi cigner, asarim.
Yirtarim daglari, enginlere sigmam, tasarim.

Garbin afakini sarmissa celik zirhli duvar.
Benim iman dolu gogsum gibi serhaddim var.
Ulusun, korkma! Nasil boyle bir imani bogar,
'Medeniyet' dedigin tek disi kalmis canavar?

Arkadas, yurduma alcaklari ugratma sakin;
Siper et govdeni, dursun bu hayasizca akin.
Dogacaktir sana va'dettigi gunler Hakk'in,
Kim bilir, belki yarin, belki yarindan da yakin.

Bastigin yerleri 'toprak' diyerek gecme, tani!
Dusun altindaki binlerce kefensiz yatani.
Sen sehid oglusun, incitme, yaziktir, atani.
Verme, dunyalari alsan da bu cennet vatani.

Kim bu cennet vatanin ugruna olmaz ki feda?
Suheda fiskiracak topragi siksan, suheda!
Cani, canani, butun varimi alsin da Huda,
Etmesin tek vatanimdan beni dunyada cuda.

Ruhumun senden ilahi, sudur ancak emeli:
Degmesin ma' bedimin gogsune na-mahrem eli!
Bu ezanlar ki sehadetleri dinin temeli,
Ebedi yurdumun ustunde benim inlemeli.

O zaman vecd ile bin secde eder varsa tasim.
Her cerihamdan, ilahi, bosanip kanli yasim,
Fiskirir ruh-i mucerred gibi yerden na'sim;
O zaman yukselerek arsa deger belki basim!

Dalgalan sen de safaklar gibi ey sanli hilal!
Olsun artik dokulen kanlarimin hepsi helal.
Ebediyyen sana yok, irkima yok izmihlal;
Hakkidir, hur yasamis, bayragimin hurriyet,
Hakkidir, Hakk'a tapan milletimin istiklal!

fun facts

It has one of the world’s oldest and biggest malls.

You might find chicken in your dessert.

Santa Claus is from Turkey.

Turkey gifted tulips to the world

More than 130 peaks reach over 9,800 feet

A new type of plant is discovered every 10 days.

The first ever christian church to be built by man was in turkey

citations

"Turkish National Anthem." - All About Turkey. Web. 04 May 2016.

"About :: History." Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence Agency. Web. 04 May 2016.