Chapter 8 Review

Hinduism in India

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Section 8.1 Summary

Section 1 is about the origin of Hindu India, it talks about Aryans and Hinduism. Aryans were invaded in 1500 BC, they established tribes, cattle was main source of income, often at war, men lead the society. They had no written language, language was sanskrit and had four main social classes (Varnas). Aryan’s worshipped many gods and goddess eventually, turned into Hinduism.


• Language - sanskrit

• Vedas - holy rituals

• Brahmans - Priest: study and teach vedas, religious ceremonies, ensure welfare of people

• Kshatriyas - Warriors/Rulers: Study Vedas, lead government, head of army

• Sudras - Unskilled Laborers, Servants: serve other varnas

• Pariahs - slaves: perform tasks considered unclean, lived outside the cities (untouchables, outcastes)

• Dharma - duties of each male in each varna

• Mahabharata - epic poem that outlines one must do their duty no matter what

• Upanishads - religious writings from 800-400 BC

• Brahman Nerguna - everything has a soul (gods, humans, animals) that are apart of the universal spirit

• Reincarnation - rebirth of the soul

• Ahisma - nonviolence towards all living things

• Moksha - release from the pain of rebirth, complete oneness with Brahman Nerguna

Section 8.2 Summary

Section 2 is about the rise of Buddhism, Siddhartha Gautama → founder of Buddhism, Prince of Kshatriya, born 566 BC, age of 29 → left and wandered through India in search of “why does suffering occur and how to end it?", known as the “Enlightened One”.

Spread of Buddhism began from the Buddha spent 40 years teaching the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. After his death, monks spread throughout Asia


• Siddhartha Gautama → founder of Buddhism

• Nirvana - freedom from rebirth

• Stupas - large stone mounds over the bones of holy people

• Theravada - S/SE Asia, regards Buddha as a teacher

• Mahayana - China, Korea, Japan; Buddha as a divine being and savior

Section 8.3 Summary

Section 3 is about Indian Empires. The two empires are the Mauryan Empire and the Gupta Empire. The Mauryan Empire lasted until 184 BC and followed Hinduism. The Gupta Empire lasted until 375 AD- 415 AD and followed Buddhism.


• Golden Age - Chandragupta I ruled for more than 200 years

• Rock Edicts - laws written on stones throughout empire in local languages