By EDWARD ROTHSTEIN
Two exhibitions, one at the National Museum of American History and the other at Monticello, explore Thomas Jefferson’s relationship with slavery.
January 27, 2012, Friday
MORE ON THOMAS JEFFERSON AND: SLAVERY, JEFFERSON, THOMAS, NATIONAL MUSEUM OF AMERICAN HISTORY, MONTICELLO (THOMAS JEFFERSON'S HOME), ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION (1781-89), BLACKS, HISTORIC BUILDINGS AND SITES, RACE AND ETHNICITY
By GIL TROY
The recipe for a substantial presidential campaign is hard to follow.
December 2, 2011, Friday
MORE ON THOMAS JEFFERSON AND: PRESIDENTS AND PRESIDENCY (US), JOHNSON, LYNDON BAINES, PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 2012, JEFFERSON, THOMAS, GOLDWATER, BARRY, KENNEDY, JOHN FITZGERALD, NEWS, LINCOLN, ABRAHAM, UNITED STATES, OBAMA, BARACK, REPUBLICAN PARTY, ROMNEY, MITT, ROOSEVELT, FRANKLIN DELANO, DEMOCRATIC PARTY
By KATE TAYLOR
"To help people understand how Jefferson was shaped by slavery is another way to help them understand how they're shaped by slavery," said the director of one of the organizations sponsoring the show.
August 30, 2011, Wednesday
MORE ON THOMAS JEFFERSON AND: MUSEUMS, JEFFERSON, THOMAS, HEMINGS, SALLY, SLAVERY, NEWS, MONTICELLO (THOMAS JEFFERSON'S HOME), NATIONAL MUSEUM OF AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION
By SAM TANENHAUS
The conflict over the federal debt began early on, when Jefferson and Madison formed an opposition party.
July 31, 2011, Sunday
MORE ON THOMAS JEFFERSON AND: TEA PARTY MOVEMENT, UNITED STATES POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT, FEDERAL BUDGET (US), NATIONAL DEBT (US), REPUBLICAN PARTY, UNITED STATES, JEFFERSON, THOMAS, TAFT, ROBERT A, FEDERAL TAXES (US)
By JAMES BARRON
A New York Waterway ferry trip to Weehawken, N.J., called “a slaughterhouse” in the late 18th and early 19th centuries for duels, including the one that left Alexander Hamilton dying and Aaron Burr’s reputation in tatters.
July 10, 2011, Monday
By PAULA DEITZ
A history of the founding fathers’ passion for agriculture and botany, and how those pursuits reflected their political ideas.
May 8, 2011, Sunday
By PIERANGELO CASTAGNETO
Macaroni was the product that Thomas Jefferson studied, and liked, the most.
April 1, 2011, Saturday
By WILLIAM W. FREEHLING
How Thomas Jefferson's grandsons tried to guide the state toward secession - and emancipation.
March 15, 2011, Wednesday
By SAM ROBERTS
The discovery of books that once had been in Thomas Jefferson’s library has made Washington University in St. Louis the third largest repository of his collections.
February 23, 2011, Wednesday
By TIMOTHY EGAN
No disrespect to Jefferson, but Egypt showed us the blood of patriots and tyrants is better left unspilled.
February 17, 2011, Friday
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Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 21, 1891George Washington (Editorial)
The day after tomorrow will be a great holiday in America. On that day the people of the United States will celebrate the birthday of George Washington, the Father of our Country. Since our paper will be published on that day, as usual, in the afternoon, and since we wish to give our readers an opportunity to recall the heroic deeds of this great man, we are publishing his biography in today's issue. Because our space is limited, we will present only the most important facts concerning this great American.
George Washington, the greatest of the world's great men, and first President of the United States, was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, on February 22, 1732. This year we celebrate George Washington's birthday on February 23 because February 22 falls on Sunday. If this celebration were to take place on Sunday, there would be no special holiday devoted to George Washington for 2school children, government employees, etc.
George Washington's father, August Washington, whose ancestors came from England in the year of 1657, was a rich plantation owner. He died early and his widow, the famous Mary Washington whose maiden name was Mary Ball, took upon herself the responsibility of raising the large family, giving George an admirable training. Young George attended school at Williamsburg until he was fifteen years old; then he returned home, where he practiced surveying.
George Washington entered the military service as major when the militia was called out to suppress French and Indian attacks in Virginia. He advanced very rapidly, became a colonel, and in a short time distinguished himself in Ohio. As the soldiers of the militia were not very highly esteemed by the English government, George Washington returned to private life in 1754 and settled on the estate of his brother in Mount Vernon, Virginia. Next year, however, George Washington joined General Braddock's expedition against the 3French in Canada. Braddock made him his adjutant, and next year, in 1775, [sic] he was made commander of all the militia in Virginia. When the war ended in that part of the country in 1763 [sic], he returned to Mount Vernon again, as a private citizen, where, in 1759 [sic], he married Martha Custis, a young widow.
In the meantime dissatisfaction arose among the colonists on account of the abuses perpetrated by the English government against them. The outrages, the great injustice, the unreasonable taxation, and other innumerable oppressive measures committed by the English government, which for lack of space we cannot describe here, created a strong opposition of the colonists. This opposition began to grow because, despite the English government's revocation of its unjust decrees several times, the outrages continued and grew worse and worse, until the patience of the colonists was exhausted. The result was open opposition and, finally, revolution against England. Thirteen colonies united for the purpose of overthrowing the English yoke.4
On September 14, 1744, the fellow-citizens of George Washington elected him as their representative to the Congress of the United Colonies which was being held in Philadelphia. Here he was put in charge of all defense units, and on June 15, 1765, when more energetic measures were necessary, he was made commander-in-chief of the North American Army.
George Washington's army was composed of militia units and all kinds of recruits--untrained, unorganized, and unequipped with the proper weapons or ammunition. For this reason he could not undertake offensive operations. This unfavorable condition was caused by the faulty laws of the colonies and the lack of co-operation of a loose Union.
George Washington had a great task before him. He organized his army, established the necessary discipline, constructed coast defenses, and equipped flotillas. During this time he was not disturbed by the impatience of the people who urged him to take active measures. He remained calm and waited until he was well-prepared.5
His first success was in forcing General Howe to leave Boston on March 17, 1776. Then on the 4th of July of the same year, the United States declared their independence and renounced their allegiance to England. England reinforced her army with 35,000 and took New York. Washington moved his army from one place to another and after several unsuccessful battles, finally retreated north into the mountains. His army was decimated by hunger, cold, and disease. Many soldiers became discouraged on account of the hardships and deserted. Any other man placed in Washington's position and confronted with such great difficulties and hardships would have lost courage and hope. But he did not fall into despair. With great difficulties he gathered the remainder of his army, numbering two thousand faithful soldiers and retreated as far as the Delaware River. But fortunately, not everyone lost hope. Washington persuaded Congress to increase the strength of the army to one hundred battalions and to prolong military service for the duration of war. He was also given almost dictatorial power over the army for six months. Then on December 26, Washington crossed the Delaware River, attacked the English, and on the third day of January, 1777, defeated them at Princetown. However, 6he yielded to superior forces on the eleventh of September at Brandywine River, and on the third of October, at Germantown, he retreated to Valley Forge. This defeat did not deprive him of his courage or hope. He held out his post until the French Alliance permitted him to resume his offensive operations. On June 28, 1778, he defeated the English at Clinton, near Monmouth, and later, on the eighteenth of October, reinforced by 6,000 French soldiers, he forced an English army of 7,000 commanded by Cornwallis to surrender at Yorktown. This led to the signing of a peace treaty with Great Britain in 1783.
When the English left New York on November 25, 1783, Washington disbanded his army, resigned his commission to Congress, and returned to Mount Vernon as a common plantation owner. He declined to accept any reward for his services from the Federal government. However, he did accept a grant of land presented to him by the State of Virginia on the condition that he would be given the right to use it for public school purposes.7
In May, 1787, he was sent by the State of Virginia to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, where he was chosen as the presiding officer of all sessions. The result of this convention was the framing of the Constitution of the United States on the seventeenth of September, 1787.
In April, 1789, Washington was elected first President of the United States.
As President, he established peace and order, regulated national debts, constructed national defenses, built schools, and laid the foundation for constructing roads and canals. He preserved strict neutrality, and because of this he was successful in entering into trade agreements with England. In 1792 he was re-elected President of the United States. By a proclamation of neutrality, Washington preserved the peace of the United States in the war between France and England and effected a profitable trade agreement with the latter. He expelled seditious French agitators, for which he was severely criticized. He declined a third term, thereby establishing a precedent which has been respected until the present day.8
In 1797 when a threat of war with France hovered over the country, Washington was appointed Lieutenant-General and, in spite of his old age, he undertook the task of reorganizing the army. Then France sent a commission and made a treaty in 1800.
Washington died on December 14, 1799, leaving no heirs. He made a will by which he freed his slaves.
Who does not know how Americans worship the Father of this country? Many cities bear his name, and in almost every city, some street, some public place, is named after him. Almost in every state there is a "Washington County."
There are also many monuments erected in commemoration of his name, and the most famous and magnificent of them all is the one erected in the capital, Washington, D. C. There are also very imposing monuments of George Washington in Richmond, Boston, New York City, and Philadelphia.9
The character of George Washington was revealed by his great deeds. It was unusual, unsurpassed. He was calm in deliberation, energetic in actions, unmoved in misfortune, brave on the battlefield, keen in selecting his counsels and assistants, never allowing even a shade of jealousy; outspoken, sincere, always adhering to his principles whenever he thought he was right; conscientious in performing his duties, pleasant, charitable. These are some of his good qualities.
The people of the United States pay homage to the memory of this great man, the Father of this free and wonderful country.
I J, III B 3 a
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