High Middle Ages in Europe

Harsh, Emma, & Baylee

Explain the relationship of Holy Roman Emperors and the Popes.

Pope John XII proclaimed Otto emperor in 962 and the HRE was started. Otto protected the church while being a ruler. But conflict with the papal state prevented the emperors from building a strong state. Relationships with emperor and pope very tense, emperors tried to choose church officials, emperor tried to extend power to Italy where pope was powerful.

Explain the development of Regional States in England, France and Italy.

France- feudal society eventually brought centralized power and authority to Capetian kings

England- founders of English monarchy were the Normans(descendants of Vikings) Norman dukes built a centralized state and were strict with vassals. William of Normandy invaded England and introduced Norman style feudalism and ruled over a much more tightly centralized government that France

Italy- no single regime but a series of ecclesiastical states, city-states, and principalities competed for power and position. The popes had a good sized territory in Italy and ruled the Papal State but were eventually displaced by lay people. Examples of prosperous city states include, Florence, Bologna, Genoa, Milan, and Venice.