Blood

By:Adriana Uelman

Overall Blood characteristics

Blood Components

-Red Blood Cells: 45% of whole blood

-White Blood Cells: <1% of whole blood

-Platelets:<1% of whole blood

-Plasma: 55% of whole blood

How much blood is in our body?

-Adults weighing from 150-180 pounds: 4.7-5.5 liters

-Children weighing 80 pounds: have half the amount of blood of adults

Where is blood produced in the body?

Red bone marrow produces Red Blood Cells.
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What controls the production of blood in the body?

The production of the blood is controlled by hormones that tell the stem cells to turn into a red blood cell or a white blood cell.

Plasma

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Characteristics

-hot iodized gas

-considered 4th state of matter

Function of Plasma

It contains proteins that help blood clot and perform other functions. It also contains glucose and other dissolved nutrients.

Donating Plasma

-Donating plasma is helpful for people to fight off chronic diseases

-A needle gets placed into your arm and blood gets drawn out and then gets put into a spinning device that separates the plasma from the blood.

Red Blood Cells

Characteristics

They are red in color and are a concave disk

Function

-Carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues

What is a Hematocrit test

It tests if you have too low or too high amounts of red blood cells.

Importance of Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin gives the blood ability to carry oxygen and iron. Hemoglobin tests look at the levels of hemoglobin in the blood.

Anemia: condition in which the blood doesn't have enough healthy red blood cells

Iron deficiency anemia: Too few healthy red blood cells due to too little iron in the body

Hemolytic anemia: red blood cells are destroyed and removed from the blood stream before normal life span

Hemorrhagic anemia: resulting directly from loss of blood

Sickle cell anemia: A group of disorders that cause red blood cells to become misshapen and break down

Pernicious anemia: decrease in red blood cells because the body cant absorb vitamin B-12

Polycythemia

Elevated red blood cell count

Causes: acquired genetic mutations

Treatments: treatment depends on the cause

Process of donating blood

Step 1 Registration

  • Present your photo ID Card
  • Read information sheet about donating blood.

Step 2 Donor Health History and Mini Physical

  • Provide basic demographic and health information
  • Answer questions about past and present health history (information is kept private)
  • Undergo mini exam to determine if you are able to donate (temperature, blood pressure, heart rate). Give blood drop to determine hemoglobin level.

Step 3 Hydration Station

  • Drink water or other beverage prior to your donation. The more hydrated you are, the faster your donation will be and the better you’ll feel afterwards

Step 4 Donation

  • Sit in one of the specialized comfy donor “lounge chairs”
  • Answer a few questions from a staff member
  • Once the needle is in place, it usually takes less than 10 minutes to draw a unit (about a pint) of blood. You’ll squeeze a ball to keep the blood flowing while you read, relax or chat with one of then nurses
  • Finish your donation, after which the needle will be removed and a bandage applied

Step 5 Visit the Canteen

  • Sit, relax and have a snack and drink

Step 6 After Donation

  • Avoid strenuous physical activity or heavy lifting for a few hours. If you feel light-headed, lie down until feeling better.

http://www.bloodcenters.org/blood-donation/donating-blood-step-by-step/

White blood cells

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Characteristics

White and spherical

Function

  1. Involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders

5 types of white blood cells

  • Neutrophil
  • Lymphocytes
  • Monocytes
  • Eosinophils
  • Basophils

Conditions

Leukopenia: is a decrease in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) found in the blood, which places individuals at increased risk of infection.

Leukemia: cancer of the body's blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow and the lymphatic system.

Mononucleosis: Often called mono or kissing disease, an infection with the Epstein-Barr virus

Multiple myeloma: With this condition, a group of plasma cells becomes cancerous and multiplies.

Platelets

Characteristics

Very small
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Function

They help clot blood

Events during homeostasis

Process of stopping bleeding at the site of interruption

Events:

-vessels constrict to reduce blood flow

-platelets stick to the vessel wall around the injury

-enzymatic reactions occur involving coagulating proteins

-fibrin is then produced to form a hemostatic plug

Hemophilia

A condition in which the blood doesn't clot properly to make a person bleed exessivly.

-could become severe even from a slight cut

Treatments:

-clotting factor concentration is made from human blood and blood is treated to prevent the spread

-recombinant clotting factor which is not made from human blood and also is mostly given to children

Blood thinners

Coumadin: helps prevent new blood clots from forming

Heparin:Prevents clots in the blood vessels before or after surgery

Aspirin:Treats pain, fever, arthritis, and inflammation.