History of Space Exploration

<Mariner Missions>

<Mariner 1>

This is the first Mariner, to fly by Venus. It was launched on July 22, 1962. But it was blown up by a range safety officer about 5 minutes into flight.

<Mariner 2>

It was success fully launched in August 27th, 1962. Sending it to Venus for 3 and 1/2 months. It measured first time solar wind. It was not outfitted with camera.
Grand Explorations: Mariner 2 - Orbiter Space Flight Simulator

<Mariner 3>

It was 260 kg solar cell and battery powered spacecraft. It was designed to take a photograph of the Mars. Johney of least 8 months.

<mariner 4&5>

It was launchedMariner 4 was the first spacecraft to obtain and transmit close range pictures of Mars. Mariner 5 went Venus, instead of Mars. Mariner 5 came back with Venus' atmosphere.

<mariner 6&7>

Mariner 6 was launched Fabruary 24th, 1969. And Mariner 7 was launched in March 27th, 1969. Those two are the identical spacecraft (made out of same thing). They brought 143 picture of Mars.

Mariner 6&7

<Mariner 8&9>

They were identical spacecrafts like 6&7. Mariner 8 got lost in a launch vehicle failure.9 was launched on May, 1971, designed to map the Martian surface.

<mariner 10>

It was launched on Nov. 3, 1973.It was first use a gravity assist trajectory. And it was olso first spacecraft to encounter two planets at close range.

<Mariner 11&12 Plan>

Mariner 11 and 12 are planned to go Jupiter and Saturn. Mariner 11 got new name, "Voyager 1". And Mariner 12 olso got new name "Voyager 2".