Muscular System

Skyla Kelly


The function is mobility, shaping the body, maintaining posture, and strength. It pumps blood and plays a role in some muscles/ vessels.


  • Muscular Dystrophy: Is carried by the mother, causes the muscles to weaken slowly due to lack of protein. These muscle tissues are then replaced by fatty deposits. Symptoms are waddling when walking, trouble standing and sitting down, loss of strength,curving of the spine. The prevalence is over 1700 cases today.There is no cure for this disease but, medication and therapy slows down the disease.
  • Myopathy: A disease that causes the skeletal or muscle to become weak. Symptoms are pain, tightness, cramping, aching, weakness everywhere basically. Prevalence is 1 case per million inhabitants. Treatment includes, medication, therapy, healthy eating, and watching the body weight.

Skeletal Muscle Contraction

Impulse gets to unit the traveling along the axon into the muscle. Which causes the calcium channels to open, releasing acetylcholine within the cleft. Impulse then spreads along sarcolemma, then moving to the T tubules and then triggers the release of calcium ions from sarcoplasmic reticulum. Actin allows myosin heads to attach to the site forming cross-bridges, which is where ATP is broken down at. ATP binding allows the myosin to detach then ATP hydrolysis occurs. Cross bridges leave while new ATP are attaching to myosin head , ATP is broken down and used as energy for other places. With the final stage beginning, a drop of stimulus causes calcium and decreases muscle relaxation.
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Nervous System


Function of the system is the sending of signals from one cell to the other, or parts of the body.

  • Central Nervous System: It is where information from all senses are put together in time, where memories are formed /recalled, movements and commands are planned.Major parts are the brain, brainstem,spinal cord.
  • Peripheral nervous system: Acts as a problem solver between the body and central nervous system. PNS commands and manages throughout the body.Major parts are the autonomic and somatic nervous system.

Major Regions

Cerebral hemisphere: the two symmetrical halves of the cerebrum. The central sulcus and lateral sulcus are two regions in the cerebral hemisphere.

Diencephalon: the posterior part of the forebrain consisting of the hypothalamus,thalamus, metathalamus, and epithalamus .

Brain Stem: Controls the flow of messaging between of the brain and rest of the body. Major regions pons, midbrain, and medulla oblongata.

Cerebellum: Helps coordination of the muscle movement and balance. Made of two hemispheres


Ataxia: No coordination everywhere. Symptoms are incoordination of hands, arms, legs, slow eye movements, bad balance, slurring of speech.The prevalence is 1/20,000 and 1/50,000 . Treatment is no cure or medication for ataxia.

Alzheimer's Disease: progressive nervous system disease that occurs when nerve cells in the brain die.Symptoms are memory loss, problems with language, mood changes, difficulty performing familiar tasks. The prevalence is 5.1 million Americans. Treatment staying healthy,tolerance of medication, therapy, procedures.

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