Types of Mining and Fracking
Surface- The surface is the layer of earth that is mined that is exposed to air, sunlight, nothing blocking it, etc.
Subsurface- The layers of Earth that is mined that is under the surface.
Strip mining is the process of mining a seam of mineral, by first removing a long strip of overlying soil and rock. Its effect on the environment is that it removes some habitats for the purpose of getting some materials.
Open pit mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rocks and minerals from the Earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. Its effect on the environment would be the same as strip mining since its extracting rocks and minerals from the Earth.
Mountain Top Removal
Mountain top removal is a form of surface mining that mines the top of a mountain or the summit ridge of a mountain. Its main use is for coal. Its effect on the environment is that it takes down many different habitats and sometimes, resources for survival.
Slope mining is a method of accessing geologic material such as coal or ore. A sloping access digs downwards towards a desired material. The environmental effects of slope mining would be that it could possibly drill into some kind of reservoir that could be used for human consumption.
Drift mining is a general mining term, meaning a near-horizontal passageway in a mine following a bed of coal or a vein of ore. The environmental effects of drift mining would be that it the mine could cave in and destroy all habitats within the mine.
Shaft mining is the process of excavating a vertical (or near-vertical) method from the top down. The environmental effects would be that if the gas found leaked, the environment would be uninhabitable.
Fracking is the process of injecting fluid into the ground at a high pressure in order to fracture shale rocks to release natural gas inside. The environmental effects would be that it is injecting chemicals such as lead, uranium, mercury, ethylene glycol, radium, methanol, hydrochloric acid, formaldehyde into the environment. Fracking is done through water that is mixed with sand and chemicals to create the fracking fluid which is injected into nearby shale rock and it causes it to crack creating fissures where natural gas flows into.