Standard 12 American History
The First Abolitionist Societies
William Lloyd Garrison, who began as a promoter of blacks returning to Africa, started his own abolitionist paper (The Liberator) in 1830. In 1833, he created the American Antislavery Society. Frederick Douglas, a former slave, joined Garrison to make a total of 40 anti-Union speeches. Frederick also founded The North Star, a black abolitionist paper.
Sojourner Truth, formerly known as Isabella Baumfree, joined many organizations to and slavery and gain women's rights. Truth joined the Northampton Association of Education and Industry in 1844. Another set of women known for being abolitionists and women's rights activists were the Grimke Sisters. Angelina and Sarah Grimke are not what most would envision bold abolitionists to be. The two were wealthy privileged girls with slaves and a steady path set before them. Regardless of what society expected the two are known as great abolitionists because of their actions.
Henry David Thoreau, a well educated writer, was also an abolitionist. He helped slaves exit to Canada when he was a conductor on the underground railroad. His skilled writing helped inspire and further expand the movement.Another man helping with African American rights was Charles Sumner. Sumner strongly disagreed with Lincoln's views politically, especially slavery. Lincoln was for partial enfranchisement while Sumner believed blacks should have the right to vote.
Rise of Religious Movements
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Of all three ordinances in the US, the Ordinance of 1787 is the most important. It laid the basis for the government of the Northwest territory, standards for territories, outlawed northwest territory slavery, gave freedom of religion, and gave civil liberties.
The Underground Railroad
The Underground Railroad was a system that helped slaves escape to the North and Canada to gain freedom. Many white and black people did heroic acts to ensure the safety of slaves. John Fairfeild, a son of slaveholders and a "conductor", staged a funeral procession in order to free 28 slaves. Quakers like Levi Coffin helped slaves on the railroad.
Impressive women like Harriet Beecher Stowe and Harriet Tubman made large impacts on the abolitionist movement as well. Harriet Tubman was a slave in the south until escaping in 1849. She became known as one of the most famous "conductors" on the railroads because of her many rescues. The writing of Uncle Tom's Cabin made Harriet Beecher Stowe extremely well known. The book is an anti-slavery novel that helped in the friction of the Civil War.