Water, Water, Everywhere

Science Fair Project Heather & Tessa

Science Fair (Heather)

Water, Water Everywhere


Introduction


When water is purified to remove chemicals or contaminants, the purification process changes the flavor of the water. Polluted and dirty water needs to be treated or purified before people are able to drink it. Different types of chemicals or contaminants can make water too polluted to drink. People need clean water to drink so they can be healthy. In many poor countries people do not have clean water so they must purify it. Depending on the type of the water pollution, different processes will be used to purify it. This could result in different tastes for the water. The independent variable for this experiment will be the type of water and the dependent variable will the the water flavor. A second variable will be temperature. The same water sample will be tested at room temperature and ice cold. This will demonstrate whether temperature has an effect on taste.


Most of the people on our planet have unclean water that they have to drink from and use for other things like:

  • The first use for water is drinking. This is the most important use for water.

  • The second use for water is grooming.

  • The third use for water is for sanitary use, such as sanitizing your fruits and vegetables.

  • The fourth use for water is cleaning kitchen tools and clothes.

(http://water.org/water-crisis/water-sanitation-facts/)


Main sources of water are wells, mountain streams, rivers and sea water. There are also other sources like rainwater, melted snow, lakes, swamps and even some plants. But it is not always safe to drink water because there are a lot of different potential contaminants in water that can either make a person very sick or cause a fatal illness (http://survivaltopics.com/that-water-is-unsafe-to-drink/). Some of the disease causing contaminants are Gardia, Ciliates, Angiostrongylus, Pinworms, and other microorganisms (http://survivaltopics.com/that-water-is-unsafe-to-drink/).


These contaminants come from fecal matter from wildlife and ignorant humans. It's also when people are careless enough to clean their dishes in the water. But there are a few ways to purify the water (http://survivaltopics.com/that-water-is-unsafe-to-drink/). Two of the ways that water can be purified are by heating the water and by using chemicals. When contaminated water is heated up to a boil, it will kill the bacteria and become drinkable. Various chemicals used to treat water can kill bacteria but lack the ability to destroy 100% of disease causing organisms.


Some of the types of water to be tested for flavor are salt water, tap water, spring water, and mineral water. The salt water will be made from tap water and salt. The rest of the water will be bought from our local supermarket. Water is a valuable resource. Three percent of the world is made up of fresh water. The salt water on the earth makes up the other 97%.


There are a lot of different types of water in the world. Water is a valuable resource. The science experiment will involve 4 different types of the water. Water is also used for so many different thing. Some people don’t even have clean water to use.

(http://bragg.com/blog/index.php/all-natural-organic-whole-live-foods/the-facts-about-water/) When water is purified to remove the chemicals or contaminants, the purification process changes the flavor of the water.



Methods and Materials

All of the supplies will be purchased at the local supermarket. The salt water will be made by adding Kosher salt to a pitcher full of tap water. The experiment will include four types of water Including tap water, spring water, salt water, and mineral. The water will be placed into four separate pitchers labeled A, B, C, and D. Participants will not know which type of water is in each pitcher. A testing table will be set up with four separate zones using masking tape. Each zone will hold 20 cupS and pitcher with a label of A, B, C, or D. The cups will be filled with two ounces of the type of water that is in that zone. Survey forms will be distributed out to the participants. Then once filled out, it will be collected back. The first 20 participants will receive room temperature water. The next 20 participants will receive ice cold temperature water. Then the following group will receive the room temperature water and then the groups will alternate between ice cold water and room temperature water.


  1. Ice Chest

  2. Ice

  3. Clipboard (2)

  4. Water Types (4)

  5. Pencils (2)

  6. Pitchers (4)

  7. 80-100 Participants

  8. Shoe box (2)

  9. Surveys (200)

  10. Dixie Cups (400)

  11. Table Cloth

  12. Masking Tape

  13. Labels for pitchers

  14. Salt (kosher)



Work cited


  1. Desalination - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desalination. 11/11/15


  1. World’s 10 Most Polluted Places.

http://www.livescience.com/4226-world-10-polluted-places.html. 11/28/15


  1. Facts about water!Braggs lives food life. http://bragg.com/blog/index.php/all-natural-organic-whole-live-foods/the-facts-about-water/ . 11/28/15


  1. Pollution in detail | Compassion in World Farming

https://www.banthebottle.net/articles/a-simple-way-to-conduct-your-own-water-taste-test/. 11/9/15


  1. Water Crisis: Water & Sanitation

http://water.org/water-crisis/water-sanitation-facts/ 11/27/15


  1. That Water is Unsafe to Drink

http://survivaltopics.com/that-water-is-unsafe-to-drink/ 11/9/15


  1. 24 Purification Methods

http://www.enviroalternatives.com/watermethods.html 11/11/15

Science Fair (Tessa)

Water, Water Everywhere


Introduction


More people prefer the taste of spring to distilled water or tap water. The independent variable for this experiment includes: tap water in Irvine from the Irvine Ranch Water District, spring water, distilled water, desalinated water from a condenser tube, and spring water from a local grocery store. The dependent variable is the percent of preferences. The goal is to test 80-100 people to get a somewhat accurate. percentage of people’s preferences. It is important that people know their preferences in water because California has been in a drought for over four years. (http://www.bewaterwise.com/Drought.htm). It is important that California can get out of this drought because, the drought effects; climate change, agriculture and food, jobs and, fire safety. (http://www.bewaterwise.com/Drought.html). Wasted water comes with a price, a water leak at home can waste up to 10,000 gallons of water. (http://www.chelseagreen.com/blogs/ten-facts-about-the-water-we-waste/). A household for a year can waste one trillion gallons of water according to the Environmental Protection Agency. (http://www.bewaterwise.com/Drought.htm).

The projected outcome of this experiment is that people know which water to buy so that they can waste less water. The water being used is distilled water which is the outcome of the process of desalinating water. Desalination is the process of taking, for example, sea water and boiling the water and making the water into drinking water. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distilled_water). Drinking water that was distilled was first drank in 200 C.E..(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distilled_water) Another type of water used for this experiment is tap water. The definition of tap water is “water that comes out of a pipe.”(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tap_water). Tap water was more common drunk in the 20th century but was available some places in the 19 century. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tap_water). Spring water is any water that is naturally found on earth’s surface. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spring_(hydrology). Some states in America depend on spring water because there is such a low supply of water. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spring_(hydrology). Spring water is good for people because minerals get dissolved into the water when the water flows underground, which gives the water some taste. (http://www.chelseagreen.com/blogs/ten-facts-about-the-water-we-waste/). This is why spring water is often bottled as mineral water. Springs water that contains a significant amount of minerals are commonly labeled as “mineral springs”. Spring water has many uses like drinking water, irrigation, mills, navigation,and electricity generators. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spring_(hydrology). Spring water can also be used for activities such as fishing, swimming, water for livestock, and fish hatcheries. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spring_(hydrology).

Five billion people worldwide are exposed to unsafe water, but this can be stopped. Water use can be limited by taking shorter showers, turning off the faucet, and other the little things. The independent variable will change the type of water that people are using. The audience needs to know about the independent variable that there are many types of water; some are cheap, some are expensive, some taste better than others, some have minerals and chemicals added to clean or taste better. Ninety-five percent of the water that comes in a house goes down a drain. (http://www.chelseagreen.com/). Leaky faucets that drip at the rate of one drop per second can waste up to 2,700 gallons of water each year. (http://www.chelseagreen.com). A garden hose or sprinkler can use almost as much water in an hour as an average family of four uses in one day. (http://www.ranker.com/). It is important that people consider how much we are using.

Other researchers have performed this experiment many times. The results of most of the experiment are spring water is most preferred to other types of water. The other experiments that used my independent variable were yearly water testing. I will use my independent variable to test the water type’s to come up with a conclusion of which kind of water people should buy so we can save water. Even if the conclusion is not the water that the test subject tested they will at least know what kind of water that they like and what type of water to buy. Over a quarter of all the clean, drinkable water people use in your home is used to flush the toilets. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22621996). Some experts estimate that more than 50 percent of landscape water use goes to waste due to evaporation or runoff caused by overwatering. (http://www.chelseagreen.com). A water-efficient dishwasher will use as little a four gallons per wash cycle, whereas some older models use up to 13 gallons per cycle. (http://www.chelseagreen.com). One in eight people do not have access to safe water. One third of the amount spent on water bottle would pay for everyone in need of water. One serving of beef is 1232.098 gallons of water; one serving of chicken is 329.9509 gallons; a vegan meal is 98.0078 gallons of water. (http://www.bewaterwise.com/Drought.html). Worldwide one out five deaths is from water-related diseases(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22621996.).It is important that people can help those in need by just using less water.

The independent variable will be tested on and asked on which kind of water they like the best so that the number is a pretty accurate number of people likes or dislikes. It is important to save water; drinking types that taste better may result in less overall waste. California has been in a drought for a couple of years now. (http://www.chelseagreen.com). Many people in the world exist on 3 gallons of water per day or less (http://www.chelseagreen.com). That amount could be used in one flush of the toilet (http://www.chelseagreen.com). If a household uses 360 gallons per day for a year that is an estimated 131,400 gallons of water a year (http://www.chelseagreen.com). People need to try to waste the least water as possible to remain a steady environment. Running the tap while brushing your teeth can waste four gallons of water (http://www.chelseagreen.com). People could this experiment data to know which water to buy or tap water and that helps save their water bill. California needs to know to not waste water because there is a huge drought and that is going to be hard to get out of.

To conclude this paper people should save water. People should know which kind of water that they prefer so that they can save water. The goal is to test 80-100 people to get an accurate number of people like different type’s of water.



Materials and Methods


  1. Ice Chest

  2. Ice

  3. Clipboard (2)

  4. Water Types (4)

  5. Pencils (2)

  6. Pitchers (4)

  7. 80-100 Participants

  8. Shoe box (2)

  9. Surveys (200)

  10. Dixie Cups (400)

  11. Table Cloth

  12. Masking Tape

  13. Labels for pitchers

  14. Salt (kosher)

  15. Saltless cracke

  16. Arrowhead spring water

  17. Tap water

  18. Desalinated water

  19. Dasani Mineral water

To complete this experiment the following will be needed for this experiment. All supplies will be purchased at a local grocery store. The salt water used for this experiment will be made by pouring kosher salt into water.This experiment will be tested with four different types water. Each group will be tested in groups of 20. Water will be served in a Dixie cup. That water will be covered with a bag over it marking A,B,C,D. Whenever a person taste a different type of water the person will be given a saltless cracker. At the end of tasting each type of water surveys will be given and data will be recorded.



Works Cited


Per capita water use.Water questions and answers; USGS Water Science School. http://water.usgs.gov/edu/qa-home-percapita.html. 11/9/15.


Consumer preferences for household water treatment products in Ahradan Pradesh,India. -PubMed-NCBI. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22621996. 11/9/15.

Spring (hydrology)-Wikipedia,the free encyclopedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spring_(hydrology. 11/9/15.


Desalination- Wikipedia,the free encyclopedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desalination. 11/9/15.


Tap water- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tap_water 11/9/15.


Distilled water- Wikipedia,the free encylopidia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distilled_water 11/9/15.


Drought. http://www.bewaterwise.com/Drought.html. 11/11/15.


Ten Facts about the water we waste. http://www.chelseagreen.com/blogs/ten-facts-about-the-water-we-waste/ 11/11/15.


Best Bottled Water brand- list of top water companies. http://www.ranker.com/list/best-bottled-water-brands/werner-brandes?var=3&utm_expid=16418821-169.9hDlXjzlQFi9OgM7W38JWQ.2&utm_referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2F 11/11/15.


20 Interesting and Useful facts about water. http://www.allaboutwater.org/water-facts.html . 11/30/15

Water Changes Everything

Water Changes Everything.