Forensics Final Project
By: Jake Challenger Period: 2
- Research and explain concepts of Forensic Science. In forensic science, Locard's exchange principle says that the perpetrator of a crime will bring something into the crime scene and leave with something from it, and that both can be used as forensic evidence.
- Frye Standard is a test to determine the non use of scientific evidence. It provides that expert opinion based on a scientific technique.
- The Daubert standard provides evidence regarding the admissibility of expert witnesses' testimony during United States federal legal proceedings.
- Testimony are statements that are made in court by witnesses and that are offered as proof of the matter asserted.
- Physical evidence is evidence that can be seen by human eye and is a physical object.
- Individual evidence is any characteristics that are common to a group are called class characteristics. Also called class evidence.
- Forensic anthropology, forensic botany, forensic entomology,forensic odontology and various DNA or protein based techniques.
- Crime lab is a scientific laboratory, using primarily forensic science for the purpose of examining evidence from criminal cases.
- Safety is a must in a crime lab, goggles, gloves, apron, and closed toed shoes are necessary.
- Equipment used can be beaker, dropper, chemicals, testing tubes, and more.
- You must keep the lab sanitary at all times.
- Chain of evidence refers to the chronological documentation or paper trail, showing the seizure of physical evidence
- Forensic science is a scientific discipline that functions within the parameters of the legal system.
- A forensic scientist is someone who either studies crime scene investigation or laboratory analysis
- They can be brought into a court of law to explain their findings.
- An autopsy is a detailed examination (and dissection) of a human body after death.
- An autopsy is conducted by a pathologist, which is a doctor with specialty level training in how to do the procedure and how to effectively analyze the tissues and body fluids.
- Steps for an autopsy: Obtain permission. Normally permission for an autopsy is given by the deceased person's family.
- Gather the appropriate data before commencing the autopsy.
- Begin with an examination of the outside of the body.
- Check the genital area for any signs of rape. Bruising and tearing are common in such cases.
- Open the body cavity once the initial examinations are complete. Using a scalpel, make one large "Y" shaped incision from each shoulder across the chest, then down to the pubic bone. Spread open the skin and check to see if any ribs are broken.
- Take a blood sample. It can be used for DNA purposes, or it can help to determine if the victim was on drugs, had been using alcohol, or whether there was poisoning involved.
- Examine each organ in the chest cavity individually.
- observe the eyes carefully. The presence of a petechial rash (tiny, broken blood vessels) can be a sign of choking or strangulation.
- Look at the head. Check for any trauma to the skull, including fractures or bruises.
- Finish your notes or your dictated recording after the autopsy is complete.
- Share you results with the family
- The five manners of death are accident, suicide, homicide, and undetermined death.
- A homicide is the deliberate and unlawful killing of one person by another; murder.
- Fluid dynamics is a sub discipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow
- The natural science of fluids in motion.
- It is used to determine blood stain analysis and the cause of the death.
- Ballistics is the study of firearms/ ”guns” in the vernacular.
- Ballistics can be used to study the bullets path out of the weapon, when its in the air, and when it hits its target.
- Another definition for ballistics is the art of matching recovered bullets and their casings to the firearm from which they were fired.
- The definition for casing is a cover or shell that protects or encloses something.
- Bullets and casing can be used to determine the cause of death, and by who.
- Evidence can be exerted by contact.
- Examples of this are fingerprints, footprints, tire marks, and more.
- Some ways to find fingerprints are Dusting for Fingerprints and Fuming for Fingerprints
- Fingerprints and footprints are used tot determine who the suspect is by giving them their identity.
- Tire marks can be used to find what type of vehicle it is, and who the owner of the vehicle is.
- These ways of finding evidence can be used in the court of law to convict the suspect of prove that they are innocent.
- work of accident analysis and reconstruction involves the application of general physical laws .