Basic Chem

Andersen Dimon, John Banks, Cade DuBree, and Ian Livengood

Matter & Atoms

Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Matter is everywhere, and everything is made of matter. Atoms are the smallest particles that retain the properties of an element in matter, and are made of three parts: protons, nuetrons, and electrons. Protons have a positive charge, mass, and are found in the nucleus. Electrons have a negative charge, negligible mass, and are found in the electron cloud. Neutrons have mass, but no charge, and are found in the nucleus.

Elements

Elements are the most basic building blocks to life. These are substances that cannot be broken down by chemical means into simpler substances with different properties. The six elements essential to life are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur.

Bohr Models and Lewis Dot Structures

There are two main ways to represent the structure of an atom. The first diagram is known as the Bohr model. Niels Bohr's representation of an atom consists of drawing both the rings, or orbitals, of the atom along with the electrons on each ring. A maximum of two electrons fit on the first orbital, while the number of electrons that fit on each orbital after is eight. The number of protons and neutrons are written in the center of the atom. Compared to the Lewis Dot structure, the Bohr model is more complicated. In the Lewis Dot atom representation, the orbitals are not drawn, and the number of protons and neutrons are not included. Instead, the elements abbreviated name is written in the center, and the number of electrons on the outer most orbital are drawn around the element accordingly.

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Ions and Isotopes

Atoms of a single element that have different numbers of neutrons are known as isotopes. They have the same number of protons but they have a different atomic mass. An example of this would be carbon. The normal atomic mass is 12, but carbon 14 or C-14 is an isotope that has a atomic mass of 14. An ion is when a molecule loses or gains electrons to balance the outer shell. When it is seen as O2- it means that the molecule gained two electrons, and when it is seen as O2+ it means that the molecule gained electrons.

Covalent Bonding & Ionic Bonding

Covalent bonding is when atoms share electrons to fill their outer shell. The outer shells of the atoms overlap, and a certain amount of electrons are shared to make both of the shells full. Ionic bonds on the other hand, form when oppositively charged ions gain or lose an electron to make their outer shell full. This can be done by either gaining electrons and then having a negativley charge, or it can lose electrons to fill the shell, thus giving the atom a positive charge.

pH Scale

The pH scale is used to measure how acidic or basic a substance is. The scale ranges from 0-14, with the lower portion of the scale, (0-6), representing acidic compounds and the upper portion, (8-14), representing more basic compounds. 7 on the pH scale is neutral, meaning the substance is neither acidic or basic.
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