Eisenhower's Presidency

The Era of Eisenhower

Presidential Campaigns

Presidential Campaign of 1952

  • Eisenhower was Republican, ran against Stevenson (democrat)
  • Eisenhower won popular vote (33, 936, 234 votes for him versus 27, 314, 992 for Stevenson)
  • Eisenhower won electoral vote (442 votes to 89 votes)
Presidential Campaign of 1956

  • Eisenhower ran as republican, went up against Stevenson (democrat)
  • Eisenhower won popular vote (35, 579, 180 to 26, 028, 028)
  • Eisenhower won electoral vote (457 to 73)

The Cold War

Definition: a state of political tension between countries shown through threats, propaganda, and other measures short of open warfare.

Events with Eisenhower:

  • Took 3 day trip to Korea
  • Germans welcomed back into NATO in 1955
  • May 1955 Soviets agreed to leave Austria
  • Hungarian freedom uprisings quelled by Soviets
  • America changed immigration laws to allow 30,000 Hungarians in
  • Eisenhower allowed Brits and French to "boil in their own oil" in the Suez crisis
  • Eisenhower doctrine of 1957

Joseph McCarthy

  • Senator of Wisconsin
  • February 1950, accused Sec of State Dean Acheson of employing 250 communists
  • After Eisenhower was elected in 1952, become bolder in accusations
  • Accused George Marshall
  • Eisenhower did not approve, but remained silent
  • Accused US Army in 1954
  • A few months later, senate formally denounced him
  • Fell into alcoholism and died

Desegregation of the South

  • 1944 Supreme court ruled "White Primary" unconstitutional
  • 1946 six black war vets lynched
  • 1948 Truman ended segregation in federal civil service
  • Eisenhower didn't change much, was prejudiced.
  • Warren did much, shocked Eisenhower and was scolded
  • May 1954 Brown v Board of education
  • December 1955 Rosa Parks triggered Montgomery bus boycott
  • 1956, "Declaration of Constitutional Principles" formed
  • September 1957 Eisenhower sent security guards to escort black students to Central High School in Little Rock
  • 1957 Congress passes Civil Rights Act, sets up Civil Rights Commission
  • 1957 Southern Christian Leadership Conference formed
  • February 1, 1960- First sit-in movement by black students
  • April 1960, Student NonViolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) formed

Republicanism Policies

  • Cut govt spending for Armed Forces
  • Supported transfer of control for offshore oilfields from feds to states
  • Attempted to curve TVA through encouraging private companies to build bigger plants
  • Freely distributed Salk polio vaccine
  • 1954, Operation Wetback
  • Tried to revert back to the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 for Native Americans
  • Gave up in 1961
  • Backed Interstate Highway Act of 1956

Vietnam

  • 1919 Ho Chi Minh appealed to Woodrow Wilson for self determination
  • Cold war changed that, Ho Chi Minh very communist
  • French colonial war in Indochina goes nowhere
  • Conference of Geneva halved Vietnam at 17th parallel
  • Ngo Dinh Diem was in charge of democratic southern half
  • Ho Chi Minh in charge of communist northern half
  • Eisenhower promised aid to Diem

The Space Race

  • October 4th, 1957- Sputnik I successfully lifted into orbit
  • November 1957- Sputnik II successfully put into orbit with dog inside
  • "Rocket Fever" spread across US
  • Eisenhower established NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)
  • 1957 Vanguard missile blew up on national television
  • February 1958 US got small satellite into orbit
  • Many others followed
  • Initiated education reform
  • 1958, National Defense and Education Act gave $887 million in loans to students and grants for language and science teachings