IPS Exam Study Guide

Wednesday 19th, and Thursday 20th of December 2012

Study Guide Explanation:

I might've missed a few things but I hit the main topics and pretty much everything that you need to know for the exam. So if its not here don't worry about it.

Lab Safety

For Every Lab:

Goggles must be kept ON YOUR FACE until Mr. Leeds says to put them away

Report ALL accidents/spills to Mr. Leeds immediately

Always use common sense

In Case of Emergency:

Nurse Extension: 2828

Safety Equipment in Classroom:

Fire extinguisher

Fire Blanket

Eye wash/shower


Never taste chemicals

Always waft liquids, however NEVER waft solids

Avoid touching chemicals

Always wash hands with soap and water after lab


Hot and Cold glass are the same so be careful

Alcohol Burners:

Roll up sleeves and never walk away from the lit burners.

Never point open end of hot test tube at anyone!

Scientific Method

1- Identify problem

2- Gather information

3- Form hypothesis/theory

4- Perform experiment

5- Analyze data

6- Conclusion


Chapter One Vocabulary

Observation- information obtained by the senses

Inference- a conclusion based upon known observations

Hypothesis- a proposed solution to a scientific problem

Control Group- the group that is standard for comparison in any experiment

Experimental Group- the group receiving the variable being tested

Control Factors- the variables that are held constant. They are the same for both the control group and the experimental group.

Indicator- a substance used to show the presence of another substance

Volume- amount of space something occupies

Volume Displacement Technique- quick way to find volume of irregular object

Mass- the amount of matter in a substance

Meniscus- curved portion when reading from a cylinder

Reaction in a Bag Lab

Remember that we had the two substances separated. Not together.

Substance A and both liquids make the reaction hot.

Substance B and red liquids make reaction cold.

Errors: Hole in bag

Scholar Reaction In The Bag Inquiry Demonstration and Lab Activity

Heating Baking Soda Lab

Pretty much everything in this lab is how we did it. Teaches you how to find the volume of a gas for future labs. Teaches that gas comes out of baking soda. (Carbon Dioxide)

Errors: Hole in tubing, Air bubbles don't really matter. Stopper not on tight.

Lab 1.1 Heating Baking Soda

Post Lab Notes from Heating Baking Soda

Just posted them to reming you of your first post lab. Just visual reminder.

Displacement of Water Lab

Taught how to find volume of irregular objects. Nothing important

Errors: Dropping the rock and the water splashing would cause a smaller volume for the rock.

Single Pan Balance Lab + Histograms

No Video for this lab just know that the margin of error for the single pan balance is between .01-.02. Histograms will usually be .02 intervals and pay attention to where he tells you the evens and the odds go.

Errors: Not cleaning the pan and zeroing the balance.


Chapter 2 Vocabulary

Histogram- a bar graph that shows the number of times a value is represented for a large sampling group

Conservation of Mass- In all changes, mass is exactly conserved, provided nothing is added or allowed to escape. Must be a closed system. Not true for volume.

Laws of Nature- Guessed generalizations based on many experiments. Can be adjusted when necessary to account for any changes in the limitation of a law.

Mass of Dissolved Salt Lab

No video for this lab, I couldn't find one. Just know that even if a substance is dissolved in the water, its there just not in solid form. Once the water is evaporated everything well be back.

Errors: Allowing water to evaporate or spilling salt when putting cap on.

Mass of Ice and Water

This is when we went outside and the ice melted in the little container resembling a film canister. It just proves the law of conservation of mass. Which is that mass can't escape a closed environment. Also remember what role condensation played in this lab and what problems it can cause in the future. This video proves the law although it isn't the same lab as the Mass of Ice and Water.

Errors: Shaking the canister and allowing the water to evaporate, also not wiping off condensation.

Law of Conservation of Mass Demonstration

Mass of Copper and Sulfur Lab

This lab had a cool reaction. We learned how to strap on the latex rubber-band. Its all pretty simple. Also proving conservation of mass. If you loose mass than you've done something wrong.

Errors: Not putting latex on securely, and a hole in the latex.

Copper and Sulfur Lab, Raw footage

Alka Seltzer Tablet and Water Lab

Again pretty much everything in Chapter two lead to the proof of the conservation of mass law. The question was whether or not the mass would change when the gas was produced. Not to be mistaken with the density of a gas lab, density has yet to be introduced! Obviously we used a more scientific approach using test tubes and single pan balances, and what not but you get the gist. The correct answer was, no, you should still have the same mass.

Errors: Allowing gas to escape and getting a smaller mass.

Exp. 2.6 The Mass of a Gas


Chapter Three Vocabulary

Characteristic Properties- Properties that show differences between substances. Examples: density, boiling point, solubility, and melting point.

Plateau- The flat portion of the graph. Indicates no change in the dependent variable. (Y- Axis)

Phase Diagram- A graph that shows the changes in state of matter for any substance. It represents physical changes in substance.

Barometer- Used to measure atmospheric air pressure. Contains a column of mercury and a metric scale in a sealed container.

Barometric Pressure- air pressure generated y the atmosphere.

Density- Mass per unit volume of any substance. Unit of measure (g/cm3)

Mass and Volume Lab

This lab was here two teach us that the mass of a 1cm3 object will depend on its substance and not on its shape. Remember, this was NOT the square lab it had the aluminum cylinders. That mistake cost you a couple points a test before, don't let it happen again. Be ready this time.

Errors: Re-massing the same cylinder, or doing volume first.

Lab 3-2 Mass and Volume

Mass and Volume Notes

1- Objects that are made of the same substance that have the same volume will have the same mass. (Regardless of shape)

2- The mass of an object will double if its volume doubles.

3- Objects that have the same volumes but are made of different substances will not have the same mass.

Density and Functions

What is the formula for Density? D= M/V... Also remember that Density is independent to the mass of the object and the volume separately. But is dependent of them together

Remember labels are key in function charts. Listen to the words carefully and then label. Make sure that you are not making a careless mistake by making the line diagonal instead of straight, or vise versa.

Density of Solids Lab

This is when you take 3 metal squares and a slab and find out if the slab is the same substance as both neither or just one of the cubes. You could pretty much tell that the squares aren't the same substance once you pick them up because they appear to have the same volume but majorly different masses. I couldn't find a video so here is a picture of the cube to remind you of the lab.

Errors: Do volume first and mix up the cubes, measuring volume incorrectly, and dropping the rock into the cylinder and loosing water.

Density of Liquids Lab

Basically the same thing as before just identifying two different liquids and distinguishing them based on their mass. This involved the beaker and the graduated cylinder just to remind you. You should always keep the liquid in the same container so you don't loose any mass and increase the density or loose volume and decrease the density. Below is not the lab you did. It is a common house hold lab but it shows that different liquids have different densities and that substance properties are what determine the liquids. You remember that for the Sludge lab!

Errors: Transferring the substances and loosing volume which would increase your density.


Density of Gas Lab

Again, this is the last Density lab, as it is the last controllable element. It's just find the density of a gas. It was a little bit difficult because gasses are hard to manage. Remember that the setup was the same as the very first lab's setup. Except here, the air bubble actually matters so you can find the volume of the gas. This is the last lab we do before the test. Once again it is very challenging and very long but it turns out that your results were correct. The example is actually straight out of your textbook. Lucky you.

Errors: So many errors in this lab. Letting gas escape. Air bubbles in bottle, hand not being tightly sealed on when lifting the bottle.

Density of a Gas.WMV