1491 - 1754

The beginning of United States History

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Bartolome de Las Casas

Bartolome de Las Casa was a Spanish-Dominican priest who was best known for fighting against the torture and discrimination against Native Americans. Prior to this, Native Americans were taken by Spaniards who were colonizing America and badly treated. After Bartolome de Las Casa witnessed these horrid actions, he traveled back to Spain to ask Charles V to invoke a better policy for human rights toward Native Americans which would lead to some changes in law. Thus, he is best known as someone who first argued against universal human rights.
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Navigations Acts

The Navigations Acts were simply laws placed by the English Parliament that would regulate trade between England and the colonies. It allowed ships to carry goods from colonies and that colonies must ship certain goods for processing and distribution. The goal of these acts would be to tighten up control of trade with England, Colonies, and other countries of the world. Thus, it would allow for the English to benefit from the colonial trade. (pg.83-85)
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Reasons For Growth of Slavery

Events that led to the growth of slavery include Bacon's Rebellion which occurred during the late 17th century. BY THE 1670's, economic and political power in Virginia was in the hands of a small circle of men who amassed land, slaves, and political offices. Freed indentured servants found it even harder to get land in Virginia due to this' and even leased their land or signed new indentures to make ends meet. Nathaniel Bacon, the leader of the rebels, led the many oppressed indentured servants into ending this corrupt system which prompted the use of unpaid labor. (pg.70-71)
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Smuggling to Get Around Mercantilism

As 1776 approached, the tradition of smuggling became vital to the Revolutionary cause. This encouraged ignoring British law, particularly in the harbors of New England. American shippers soon became quite skilled at avoiding the British navy, a practice they used extensively in the Revolutionary War. Soon England began to try offenders in admiralty courts, which had no juries. All attempts to crack down merely brought further rebellion. (pg. 107-110)

Juan De Sepulveda

- Has an awful view on Native Americans belittles them

- A Spaniard who studied in cradle of renaissance, became theologian, philosopher, historian, and astronomer

-A self-appointed champion of the interests of slavers and landowners, he had authored a treatise entitled “Concerning the Just Cause of the War against the Indians” (1547) to provide solid philosophical underpinnings for Spanish imperialism and just war theory

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Enlightenment Thinkers (P.114)

Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826) - American thinker and politician who penned the Declaration of Independence (1776), which was inspired directly by Enlightenment thought.

René Descartes (1596–1650) - A French philosopher and scientist who revolutionized algebra and geometry and made the famous philosophical statement “I think, therefore I am.” Descartes developed a deductive approach to philosophy using math and logic that still remains a standard for problem solving.

Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790) - American thinker, diplomat, and inventor who traveled frequently between the American colonies and Europe during the Enlightenment and facilitated an exchange of ideas between them. Franklin exerted profound influence on the formation of the new government of the United States, with a hand in both the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution.

Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727) - An English scholar and mathematician regarded as the father of physical science. Newton’s discoveries anchored the Scientific Revolution and set the stage for everything that followed in mathematics and physics.

Thomas Paine (1737–1809) - English-American political writer whose pamphlet Common Sense (1776) argued that the British colonies in America should rebel against the Crown. Paine’s work had profound influence on public sentiment during the American Revolution, which had begun just months earlier.
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Maryland Acts of Toleration

Pg. 52, 22

Lord Baltimore persuaded the assembly to enact the Toleration Act (1649), which granted all Christians the right to follow their beliefs and hold church services. It was then passed on April 21, 1649.

This connects with the Protest Reformation movement, which began in 1517 with Martin Luther's provoking a division among Protestants from Catholics;They both have in common how their beliefs are welcomed and have services for it. However the Reformation also helped these beliefs become welcomed without disagreements from another faith due to the division created for different beliefs.

Natives contact with Europeans

Pg. 44, 56, 43, 42

Native’s bodies weren't immune to diseases such as smallpox, diphtheria, malaria, and yellow fever which Europe and Africa had carried over to North America, leading to major results of death. However, food such as maize, potatoes, manioc, sweet potatoes, and tomatoes increased the agriculture and population growth. Europeans brought cattle, swine, horses, oxen chickens, and honeybees, Eurasian grain crops, etc. In the process also practices began to reshape and form new religions leading to a New World.

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