# Air-Time

## An article Translated from English to Icelandic

The original article:

Every object on Earth has weight, a product of both gravity and mass. A Boeing 747-8 passenger airliner, for instance, has a maximum take-off weight of 487.5 tons (442 metric tons), the force with which the weighty plane is drawn toward the Earth.

Weight's opposing force is lift, which holds an airplane in the air. This feat is accomplished through the use of a wing, also known as an airfoil. Like drag, lift can exist only in the presence of a moving fluid. It doesn't matter if the object is stationary and the fluid is moving (as with a kite on a windy day), or if the fluid is still and the object is moving through it (as with a soaring jet on a windless day). What really matters is the relative difference in speeds between the object and the fluid.

As for the actual mechanics of lift, the force occurs when a moving fluid is deflected by a solid object. The wing splits the airflow in two directions: up and over the wing and down along the underside of the wing.

The wing is shaped and tilted so that the air moving over it travels faster than the air moving underneath. When moving air flows over an object and encounters an obstacle (such as a bump or a sudden increase in wing angle), its path narrows and the flow speeds up as all the molecules rush though. Once past the obstacle, the path widens and the flow slows down again. If you've ever pinched a water hose, you've observed this very principle in action. By pinching the hose, you narrow the path of the fluid flow, which speeds up the molecules. Remove the pressure and the water flow returns to its previous state.

As air speeds up, its pressure drops. So the faster-moving air moving over the wing exerts less pressure on it than the slower air moving underneath the wing. The result is an upward push of lift. In the field of fluid dynamics, this is known as Bernoulli's principle.

Translation:

Allir hlutir á jörðinni hafa þyngd, sem er blanda af bæði þyngdarafli og massa. Hámarksþyngdin á Boeing 747-8 farþegaflugvél í flugtaki er t.d. 487,5 tonn, sem er krafturinn sem dregur þunga vélina aftur niður til jarðar.

Þyngdin á móti kraftinum er lyfta, sem heldur flugvélinni á lofti. Þessu afreki er náð í gegnum notkunnar á vængjum, einnig þekkt sem loftblað. Eingöngu er hægt að koma hlut á loft þar sem er hreyfing. Engu máli skiptir þó að hluturinn sé kyrr en andrúmsloftið í kring sé á hreyfingu (t.d. flugdreki á vindasömum degi), eða ef að loftið sé kyrrt og hluturinn sé á hreyfingu. (eins og svifflugvél í logni). Það sem máli skiptir er hlutfallslegur munur á hraða milli hlutar og andrúmslofts.

Til að útskýra raunverulega tækni á bakvið flugtak; krafturinn á sér stað þegar andrúmslofti sem er á hreyfingu er breytt um stefnu af hlut í föstu formi. Vængurinn skiptir loftstreyminu í tvær stefnur: Annars vegar upp og yfir vænginn, og hins vegar niður meðfram neðri hluta vængjarins.

Vængurinn er lagaður og hallar þannig að loftið sem flæðir yfir hann ferðast hraðar heldur en loftið sem flæðir undir hann. Þegar andrúmsloft flæðir yfir hlut og rekst á hindrun (líkt og bungu eða skyndilega breytingu á horni vængsins), þrengist leiðin og hraði loftstreymsins eykst þegar allar sameindirnar þjóta í gegn. Jafnskjótt og þær fara framhjá hindruninni, víkkar leiðin og það hægist á loftstreyminu á ný. Ef að þú hefur einhverntíman kreyst vatnsslöngu, hefur þú sjálf/ur tekið eftir þessu lögmáli. Með því að kreista slönguna, ertu að þrengja leið vökvaflæðisins, sem eykur hraða sameindanna. Fjarlægðu þrýstinginn og vatnsflæðið verður eins og áður.

Þegar hröðun andrúmsloftsins eykst, fellur þrýstingurinn. Þannig að loftið sem ferðast hraðar, yfir vængnum, beytir minni þrýstingi á það heldur en loftið sem fer hægar undir vængnum. Útkoman er sú að flugvélin lyftist upp í loft. Á sviði vökvaaflæðinnar er þetta þekkt sem Bernoulli lögmálið.

## An article translated from Icelandic to English

The Original Article:

Flugfélög gætu náð fram miklum sparnaði ef hægt væri að fylla eldsneyti á flugvélar á flugi líkt og gert er við orrustuþotur en þetta kemur fram í rannsókn sem háskólinn í Zurich hefur látið gera.

Eldsneytisbyrgðir nema um 1/3 af heildarþyngd flugvélar og brennur flugvél því meira eldsneyti við því að koma þeirra þyngd á loft en til að mynda þá tekur Boeing 777-300ER vél yfir 180 þúsund lítra af eldsneyti.

"Niðurstöður rannsóknarinnar leiddi í ljós að þyngd flugvélar samanstendur frá 11 til 23 prósentum af eldsneytisþunganum", segir í tilkynningu frá RECREATE-hópnum (The Research for a Cruiser Enabled Air Transport Environment) sem hefur verið í samstarfi við vísindamenn í níu Evrópulöndum sem hafa sl. 3 ár rannsakað "air-to-air" áfyllingar fyrir farþegaflug.

Tölvugerð mynd af eldsneytisvél og Boeing 777 frá Korean Air

Með því gætu farþegaþotur farið í loftið með minna magn af eldsneyti og hægt færi að fylla á tankinn eftir að vélin er komin yfir 32.000 fet en eldsneytisflugvélin gæti þjónað þrjár til fimm flugvélar í einu á tilteknu svæði líkt og bensínstöð í háloftunum nálægt aðalflugleiðunum en samt langt frá byggð.

Einnig myndi þetta draga úr hávæða nálægt flugvöllum þar sem flugvélar framkvæma hærra hljóð í flugtaki eftir því hversu þungar þær eru.

Í rannsókninni settu vísindamenn upp líkan og flugherma sem sýnir fram á að áfylling í háloftunum fyrir farþegaþotur sé framkvæmanlegt.

Translation:

Airlines could save a lot of money if it would be possible to refill gas on planes while flying, as they do on fighter jets. This was the result in a research that The University of Zurich made.

The fuel weight is around 1/3 of the total weight of a plane, which makes them burn more fuel while taking off. For example, a Boeing 777-300ER plane, takes over 180 thousand liters of gas.

“The result of the research showed us that petrol is around 11-23% of the total weight of a plane”, says in a report from the RECREATE-group (The Research for a Cruiser Enabled Air Transport Environment) which has been working with scientists in nine European countries that have spent last three years researching “air-to-air” refill for commercial flights.

A picture made in computer of a gas plane and Boeing 777 from Korean Air

If that would happen, commercial flights could take-off with less amount of fuel and it would be possible to refill the tank after the plane gets 32.000 feet’s. The “petrol-plane” could serve three to five planes at a time in the similar area, like a gas station in the skies near air route, but still far away from land.

Furthermore, it would make less noise near airports, because airplanes make more noise in a take-off if they are heavy.

In the research, scientists made a model and simulators which show that refilling gas in the skies for commercial flights is possible.

The reason why I chose this article is because this is a new idea which could make big difference in aviation. When I first read the article I thought it was just another crazy idea that will never happen in real life. But there are many reasons why this can be possible, and the idea is maybe not as crazy idea as I thought. The methods I used to translate this text are few. I mostly used Snara.is, but I also used google a few times to double check what I wasn´t sure about.

The main idea in this video is to tell people that it is possible to make a flying car. This has been tried a few times but has never worked out. Scientists have always been thinking about how they could make a car that could fly, but she turned the question around and asked: How can we make a plane that can drive? In the United States, there is an airport in 20-30 miles away from you wherever you are. That makes it so simple to drive to the next airport, spread out the wings and fly to your next destination. It makes the trip both way more fun and exciting, and easier.

This video got my attention because I read about this idea online few months ago and in this video I could see how this could really work. The idea of making a flying car is crazy, but crazy ideas are often the best ideas. Flying is very expensive; doing it this way makes it both cheaper and easier. Of course you need a permission to fly if you want to fly the “car” but everyone can drive it. It is very interesting how they make the “car” meet both the standards that a car needs, and the standards that a plane needs.

The main idea in this video about the possibility of planes in the future. Bastian Schaefer is a designer working for Airbus. He is showing how they see planes in the future, and it is quite cool. They want to get more natural light and make the planes more economic. They have found a new technique to use 3D printers. The will be used to re-design parts in the planes to make them lighter and faster. The whole structure will change, which makes much more space for passengers inside the plane and will make it more brighter. There will no longer be typical windows. Now you will be able to look outside in almost every direction because the windows will be both much larger, and they are also in the air.

The reason why I chose this video to watch is because I thought that 3D printers weren´t big enough to build a whole plane. I didn´t know what to expect when I started to watch the video, but the man got my attention the whole time. 3D printers are a technology that I think is exciting, and it is a tool that will, according to this video, that will change the design of airplanes and many small parts.

The name of this video tells us what the main idea is. Sarah Bergbreiter is building small robots with her team to make new things possible. The reason why she does that is because little robots can move faster and can run into spaces that people aren´t able to do. There are so many ways to use these little robots. If a building falls, they can be used find people inside, and maybe they can be used to get into our bodies and fix what needs to be fixed. Many small robots working together can to some incredible things in the future if this goes according to plan.

This video was chosen because the name got my attention. I felt like I wanted to know why it is good to make robots the size of a grain of rice. Ants can do incredible things; they work together and are incredibly strong. I thought maybe this could be something like that. I wanted to know how it was possible to make so tiny robot move through places and go from one place to another

## An interview with Ölver Jónsson

Why did I choose him?

I chose to take an interview with Ölver Jónsson because he is a good friend with my parents. I know him quite well, but I don’t know his life in work. He is a pilot, and works for an Icelandic airline called Ernir. I have always thought Ölver was a cool guy. He has a big family, and works a lot, but he always looks happy. Plus that he is a really fun guy. I wanted to know how he got to where he is today, and what he does in his work.

The questions:

When did you decide to become a pilot?

Where did you study?

Was it hard to get where you are today?

What are pros of being a pilot?

What are the cons of being a pilot?

What does it takes to become a pilot?

What is the hardest thing about the job?

Is it possible to have any hobbies when you are a pilot?

The Summary: