Hepatitis A

By: Reagan Lee

Hepatitis A

Hepatits A is a liver infection. It is can cause mild to severe illness. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus.


The symptoms are fever, fatigue , loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, dark urine, clay-colored bowel movements, abdominal pain, joint pain, and jaundice.


The cause of hepatitis A is people eating food or drinking drinks that have been contaminated with people that are infected or close contact with a person with hepatitis A. If you have poor hygiene and sanitation , this will increase the risk of getting hepatitis A. Outbreaks of hepatitis A are usually from contaminated fruits , vegetables, or water.

Immune Cells involved in Immune Response

B cells make antibodies specific to antigens. Then, the T cells sign; the virus is nonself and it secretes enzyme to breakdown virus. B cells are memory cells and T cells are natural killers.

How Hepatitis A Replicates

Hepatitis A replicates by using the lysogenic cycle. The lysogenic cycle is when the virus puts it genetic material into the host. First, the virus attaches to the host cell and it injects its DNA. Second, viral DNA circularizes with no DNA shown. Third, viral DNA mixes with the host cell chromosomes. Fourth, the host cell reproduces normally. It copies the mixed viral DNA and transmitting it to daughter cells. Fifth, many cell divisions produce a lot of the infected cell. Finally, when activated the viral DNA exits the host cell chromosome and initiates the lytic cycle. The lytic cycle is when a virus overtakes a cell and reproduces the virus. First, virus attaches to host cell and injects DNA. Second, viral DNA circularizes. Third, new viral DNA and proteins are synthesized and made. Finally, cell lyss bursts releasing viruses.
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There is no treatment for hepatitis A but most people who have it will feel sick for a couple of months before they feel better. Some people have to be hospitalized but most don't. Doctors recommend rest, healthy eating, and fluids. Alcohol should be avoided.


To prevent hepatitis A you should get the Hepatitis A vaccine. You should get the vaccine if you are a child, traveling to certain countries, and if you are at high risk for Hepatitis A. Washing hands with soap and warm water also helps prevent Hepatitis A. The Hepatitis A vaccine is a shot with inactive Hepatitis A. Then the body will make antibodies that protect the person against the virus.

Photomicrograph of Hepatits A

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