Wound Care Guide

By: Emma Johnson

Abrasions

- Skin scrapped against rough surface

- Top layer of skin wears away

- Often exposed to dirt and foreign materials= increased risk for infection

Laceration

- Sharp or pointed object tears tissues- results in wound with jagged edges

Incision

- Wound with smooth edges

Puncture Wounds

- Can occur during activity but could be fatal

- Could introduce tetanus bacillus to bloodstream

Avulsion Wounds

- Skin is torn from body= major bleeding

- Place avulsed tissue in moist gauze (saline), plastic bag and immerse in cold water

- Take to hospital for reattachment

Wound Care

Immediate Care:

- Use universal precautions: All wounds should be treated as though they have been contaminated with blood-borne pathogens


  • First step should always be to put on gloves
  • To minimize infection clean wound with copious amounts of soap, water, and sterile solution


Dressing:

- Sterile dressing

- Antibacterial ointments are effective in limiting bacterial growth and preventing wounds from sticking to dressing

Controlling External Bleeding

1. Direct Pressure

  • Pressure on would with gauze
  • Do not remove if blood comes through- add more gauze

2. Elevation

  • Elevate above heart if possible- slows bleeding
  • Continue pressure

3. Pressure Points

  • Apply pressure to an artery to decrease blood flow to an area
  • 2 main options:
  • 1. Brachial artery= upper arm
  • 2. Femoral artery= top of thigh

Are Sutures Necessary?

-Deep lacerations, incisions and occasionally punctures
-May be needed if the wounds edges cannot be easily pushed back together
-Decision should be made by a physician
-Sutures should be used within 12 hours
-Can use steri-strips if stitches are not required

Sign of Wound Infection

5 Signs


  1. Pain
  2. Heat
  3. Redness
  4. Swelling
  5. Disordered Function

- Pus may form due to accumulation of white blood cells


- Fever may develop as immune system fights bacterial infection