COMPUTER HARDWARE

BY TYLER HARPER

Learning Objectives

  • To Learn about components inside a computer
  • To understand the difference between input and output
  • To learn about Alan Turing on the modern computer
  • To learn about Tim Bernes-Lee and the birth of the world wide web
  • To learn what the four generations of computers are

My Tasks

Using what you have learnt in lessons and research from the internet, create several publications on www.smore.com . You should cover the following:



  • Drive
  • Moniter
  • CPU
  • RAM/ROM
  • Motherboards
  • Inputs/outputs
  • Touch screens
  • Alan turing

Alan Turing

Alan Turing was born on 23 June, 1912, in London. His father was in the Indian Civil Service and Turing's parents lived in India until his father's retirement in 1926. Turing and his brother stayed with friends and relatives in England. Turing studied mathematics at Cambridge University, and subsequently taught there, working in the burgeoning world of quantum mechanics. It was at Cambridge that he developed the proof which states that automatic computation cannot solve all mathematical problems. This concept, also known as the Turing machine, is considered the basis for the modern theory of computation.


He committed suicide on 7 June, 1954.

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Tim Burners-Lee

Born in London on 8 June 1955, Berners-Lee's education included Emanuel School in Wandsworth, and later Queen's College, Oxford. At Oxford he majored in physics and built his own computer out of spare parts. Berners-Lee was also caught hacking during his stay at Oxford and banned from using the university's computer.

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Steve Jobs

Steven Paul Jobs was born on 24 February 1955 in San Francisco, California, to students Abdulfattah Jandali and Joanne Schieble who were unmarried at the time and gave him up for adoption. He was taken in by a working class couple, Paul and Clara Jobs, and grew up with them in Mountain View, California.
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The First Generation

The first Generation -

The period of first generation was 1946-1959.

First generation of computers started with using vacuum tubes as the basic components for memory and circuitry for CPU (Central Processing Unit). These tubes like electric bulbs produced a lot of heat and were prone to frequent fusing of the installations, therefore, were very expensive and could be afforded only by very large organisations.

In this generation, mainly batch processing operating systems were used. In this generation, Punched cards, Paper tape, Magnetic tape Input & Output device were used.

There were machine codes and electric wired board languages used

The second Generation

The Second Generation -

The period of second generation was 1959-1965.

This generation using the transistor were cheaper, consumed less power, more compact in size, more reliable and faster than the first generation machines made of vacuum tubes. In this generation, magnetic cores were used as primary memory and magnetic tape and magnetic disks as secondary storage devices.

In this generation, assembly language and high-level programming language like FORTRAN, COBOL were used.

There were Batch processing and Multiprogramming Operating system used.

The third Generation

The Thied Generation -

The period of third generation was 1965-1971.

The third generation of computer is marked by the use of Integrated Circuits (IC's) in place of transistors. A single IC has many transistors, resistors and capacitors along with the associated circuitry. The IC was invented by Jack Kilby. This development made computers smaller in size, reliable and efficient.

In this generation, Remote processing, Time-sharing, Real-time, Multi-programming Operating System were used.

High-level language (FORTRAN-II TO IV, COBOL, PASCAL PL/1, BASIC, ALGOL-68, etc.) were used during this generation.

The fourth Generation

The fourth Generation -

The period of Fourth Generation was 1971-1980.

The fourth generation of computers is marked by the use of Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits. VLSI circuits having about 5000 transistors and other circuit elements and their associated circuits on a single chip made it possible to have microcomputers of fourth generation. Fourth Generation computers became more powerful, compact, reliable, and affordable. As a result, it gave rise to personal computer (PC) revolution.

In this generation, Time sharing, Real time, Networks, Distributed Operating System were used.

All the higher level languages like C and C++, DBASE, etc., were used in this generation.

The fifth Generation

The fith Generation -

The period of Fifth Generation is 1980-till date.

In the fifth generation, the VLSI technology became ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology, resulting in the production of microprocessor chips having ten million electronic components.

This generation is based on parallel processing hardware and AI (Artificial Intelligence) software.

AI is an emerging branch in computer science which interprets means and methods of making computers think like human beings.

All the higher level languages like C and C++, Java, .Net, etc., are used in this generation.

Input and Out put

Before a computer can process your data, you need some method to input the data into the machine. The device you use will depend on what form this data takes (be it text, sound, artwork, etc.).

Similarly, after the computer has processed your data, you often need to produce output of the results. This output could be a display on the computer screen, hardcopy on printed pages, or even the audio playback of music you composed on the computer.

CPU

CPU (Central Processing Unit) - otherwise known as a processor - is an electronic circuit that can execute computer programs. Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased their presence far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines. Modern microprocessors appear in everything from automobiles to mobile phones.

touch screens

Touch-screen monitors have become more and more commonplace as their price has steadily dropped over the past decade. There are three basic systems that are used to recognize a person's touch:

  • Resistive
  • Capacitive
  • Surface acoustic wave

Raspberry pi

Raspberry Pi celebrated its second birthday last week. Since its debut on February 29, 2012, Raspberry Pi has ushered in a whole new generation of tiny, inexpensive, single-board computers. Numerous Raspberry Pi based DIY project ideas are popping up over the web, and there are many use cases of Raspberry Pi as low-cost learning media in the developing world. Celebrating its second birthday, I am going to share in this post several interesting facts about Raspberry Pi.