Animal Farm

By: George Orwell

Novel Genres: Topic 1

Animal Fable- a short tale to teach a moral lesson, often with animals or inanimate objects as characters.

Novel Genres: Topic 2

Allegory: A story that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political moral.

Communist Russia: In Russia, there was a man named Karl Marx. He had a theory of how things were working in the government of Russia. First, it was a world under a tyrant named Tzar. Then the people fought back and there was a Revolution in 1917. After that, there was a little war going on between 2 people for power, their names were Trotsky and Stalin. Stalin ended up winning that little battle and so then he had a dictatorship of his own. Then the 5 year plan happened, and the ruling class was planning to rise up. After that, it was a terrible era of totalitarianism.

Novel Genres: Topic 3

Satire: The use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidly or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues.

What does each character represent?


Motifs: Topic 1

Songs: A way to keep everyone in line and unified.

"Beasts of England"

Sheep chants

Motifs: Topic 2


Military awards.

Large parades.

Theme Topics

Theme: Topic 1

The Corruption of Socialists Ideals in Soviet Union:

They think that their individual freedom is being invaded by the Soviet Union. They are being corrupted of their ideas and are being invaded.

Theme: Topic 2

The Societal Tendency toward Class Stratification:

Theme: Topic 3

The Danger of a Naïve Working Class:

Don'd be gullible and easily manipulated by the people who are higher in government than you. Think for yourself.

Theme: Topic 4

The Abuse of Language as Instrumental to the Abuse of Power:

Language is a powerful thing to use against people. If it is used improperly, it can confuse us. If someone is speaking another language and we are trying to work out what they're saying, we could confuse ourselves too much and want to figure it out.

Chapter Reviews

Chapter 1

After Mr. Jones, the owner of Manor Farm, falls asleep in a drunken stupor, all of his animals meet in the big barn at the request of Old Major. Old Major delivers an inspiring speech about the evils inflicted upon them by their human keepers and their need of a rebellion against Mr. Jones and the rest of the humans. After elaborating on the various ways that Mr. Jones has harmed the animals, Old Major mentions a strange dream of his in this dream he saw a vision of the earth without humans. He then teaches the animals "Beasts of England" which they sing repeatedly until they awaken Mr. Jones, who fires his gun from his bedroom window, thinking there is a fox in the yard. The animals, frightened by the shot fired into the barn, disperse and return to their places and go to sleep.

Chapter 2

After the death of Old Major, the animals spend their days secretly planning the rebellion in the barn, although they are unsure when the rebellion will take place. Because of their intelligence, the pigs are placed in charge of educating the animals about Animalism, the name they give to the philosophy expounded by Old Major. Among the pigs, Snowball and Napoleon are the most important to the revolution. Despite Mollie's concern with ribbons and Moses' tales of a place called Sugarcandy Mountain, the pigs are successful in conveying the principles of Animalism to the others.

Chapter 3

Despite the initial difficulties inherent in using farming tools designed for humans, the animals cooperate to finish the harvest — and do so in less time than it had taken Jones and his men to do the same. Boxer distinguishes himself as a strong, tireless worker, admired by all the animals. The pigs become the supervisors and directors of the animal workers. On Sundays, the animals meet in the big barn to listen to Snowball and Napoleon debate a number of topics on which they seem never to agree. Snowball forms a number of Animal Committees, all of which fail. To help the animals understand the general precepts of Animalism, Snowball reduces the Seven Commandments to a single slogan: "Four legs good, two legs bad." Napoleon, meanwhile, focuses his energy on educating the youth and takes the infant pups of Jessie and Bluebell away from their mothers, presumably for educational purposes. When the animals object, Squealer explains that the pigs need the milk and apples to sustain themselves as they work for the benefit of all the other animals.

Chapter 4

As summer ends and news of the rebellion spreads to other farms (by way of pigeons released by Snowball and Napoleon), Jones spends most of his time in a pub, complaining about his troubles to two neighboring farmers: Pilkington and Jones; Fredrick. In October, Jones and a group of men arrive at Animal Farm and attempt to seize control of it. Snowball turns out to drive Jones and his men away with the help of the other animals. They call this victory "The Battle of the Cowshed." Many animals are given awards for their bravery in the battle, these animals include: Snowball, Boxer, and some of the sheep.

Chapter 5

Mollie disappears, and the pigeons report seeing her standing outside a pub, sporting one of the ribbons that she always wore. The pigs increase their influence on the animals, by making all the decisions for the animals, who must ratify them by a majority vote. Snowball and Napoleon continue their debates, the greatest of which occurs over the building of a windmill. Snowball argues in favor of the windmill, which he is certain will eventually become a labor-saving device; Napoleon argues against it, saying that building the windmill will take time and effort away from the more important task of producing food. The two also disagree on whether they should (as Napoleon thinks) have an arsenal of guns. Snowball thinks different, he thinks they should send pigeons to other farms telling news of the rebellion. That Sunday, the idea of the windmill was put to a vote. Before the vote had finished cats. Napoleon had 9 dogs run Snowball off the farm.Three weeks after Snowball's escape, Napoleon surprises everybody by announcing that the windmill will be built. He sends Squealer to the animals to explain that the windmill was really Napoleon's idea all along and that the plans for it were stolen from him by Snowball.

Chapter 6

During the next year, animals work harder than ever before. Napoleon announces that Animal Farm will begin trading with neighboring farms and hires Mr. Whymper to act as his agent. Other humans meet in pubs and discuss their theories that the windmill will collapse and that Animal Farm will go bankrupt. The pigs move into the farmhouse and begin sleeping in beds. That November, a storm topples the half-finished windmill. Napoleon tells the animals that Snowball is responsible for its ruin and offers a reward to any animal who kills Snowball or brings him back alive. Napoleon then declares that they will begin rebuilding the windmill the following morning.

Chapter 7

As the human world watches Animal Farm and waits for news of its failure, the animals struggle against starvation. After learning that they must surrender their eggs, the hens stage a demonstration that only ends when they can no longer live without the rations that Napoleon had denied them. Nine hens die as a result of the protest. Squealer eventually tells the animals that Snowball has sold himself to Fredrick and that he was in league with Jones from the very beginning. One day in spring, Napoleon calls a meeting of all the animals, during which he forces confessions from all those who had questioned him and then has them murdered by the dogs. Numerous animals also confess to crimes that they claim were instigated by Snowball. Eventually, the singing of "Beasts of England" is outlawed and a new song by Minimus, although the animals do not find the song as meaningful as their previous anthem.

Chapter 8

The following year brings more work on the windmill and less food for the workers, despite Squealer's lists of figures supposedly proving that food production has increased dramatically under Napoleon's rule. As Napoleon grows more powerful, he is seen in public less often. After the completion of the new windmill in August, Napoleon sells the pile of timber to Frederick, who tries to pay with a check. Napoleon, however, demands cash, which he receives. The next morning, Frederick and 14 men arrive at Animal Farm and attempt to take it by force. Although the humans are initially successful, after they blow up the windmill, the animals are completely enraged and drive the men from the farm. Squealer explains to the bleeding animals that, despite what they may think, they were actually victorious in what will hereafter be called "The Battle of the Windmill." Some days later, the pigs discover a case of whisky in Jones' cellar. After drinking too much of it, Napoleon fears he is dying and decrees that the drinking of alcohol is punishable by death. The chapter ends with Muriel rereading the Seven Commandments and noticing, for the first time, that the Fifth Commandment now reads, "No animal shall drink alcohol to excess."

Chapter 9

After celebrating their so-called victory against Fredrick, the animals begin building a new windmill. Meanwhile, more and more of the animals' rations are reduced while the pigs continue to grow fatter. Animal Farm is eventually proclaimed a Republic, and Napoleon is elected President. Once his hoof heals, Boxer works as hard as he can at building the windmill — until the day he collapses because of a lung failure. After he is helped back to his stall, Squealer informs them that Napoleon has sent for the veterinarian to treat him. When the van arrives to take Boxer to the hospital, however, Benjamin reads its side and learns that Boxer is actually being taken to a horse slaughter house. Boxer is never seen again. To placate the animals, Squealer tells them that Boxer was not taken to a horse slaughter had bought the slaughter truck and had not painted the words on its side. The animals are relieved when they hear this. The chapter ends with a grocer's van delivering a crate of whisky to the pigs, who drink it all and do not arise until after noon the following day.

Chapter 10

Years pass, and Animal Farm undergoes its final changes. The second windmill has been completed and is used for milling corn. All the animals continue their lives of hard work and little food — except, of course, for the pigs. The sheep begin to bleat a new version of their previous slogan: "Four legs good, two legs better!" Now, the wall simply reads, "ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL / BUT SOME ANIMALS ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS." Eventually, all the pigs begin carrying whips and wearing Jones' clothes. Mr. Pilkington makes a toast to Animal Farm and its improvement. The skull of Old Major has been buried, and the farm flag will be changed to a simple field of green. His greatest change in policy, however, is his announcement that Animal Farm will again be called Manor Farm. Soon after Napoleon's speech, the men and pigs begin playing cards, but a loud quarrel erupts when both Napoleon and Pilkington each try to play the ace of spades. As Clover and the other animals watch the arguments through the dining-room window, they are unable to discriminate between the humans and the pigs.