Immune System and others


State the function of the system

protect against disease or other potentially damaging foreign bodies

Define pathogen, active immunity, passive immunity, antigen, and antibody.

Pathogen- that causes disease or illness to its host

Active Immunity- active immunity occurs when the person is exposed to a live pathogen, develops the disease, and becomes immune as a result of the primary immune response

Passive Immunity- passive immunity is a short-term immunization by the injection of antibodies

Antigen- any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it

Antibody- used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects

Explain why antibiotics are effective against bacteria but not against viruses

Because bacteria are different from human cells so they can destroy the bacteria without harming the human cells but on the other hand, viruses pretty much would destroy themselves along with the human cells.

Explain at least 1 major disorder that occurs within this system and HIV/AIDS

Asthma- a person's airways become inflamed, narrow and swell, and produce extra mucus, breathing through the mouth, wheezing, difficulty breathing, frequent respiratory infections, Deltasone

HIV/AIDS- chronic immune system disease caused by HIV, loss of appetite, fever, night sweats, malaise, Darunavir (Prezista), Amprenavir (Lexiva), Ritonavir (Norvir)

Endocrine System

State the function of the system.

made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones

Define homeostasis and explain its role in the endocrine system.

Homeostasis is the stability of the body, and its role in the endocrine system is to regulate body temperature, water content and blood sugar levels

Explain a negative feedback mechanism and provide an example (in the body).

Negative Feedback is a reaction that causes a decrease in function, like body temperature, and blood pressure

Explain Type I Diabetes and Type II Diabetes

Type I: chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin, sweating, nausea, excessive thirst, fatigue, or hunger, Insulin, Insulin lispro (Humalog), Insulin glulisine (Apidra), Insulin aspart (NovoLog)

Type II: chronic condition that affects the way the body processes blood sugar, Symptoms: fatigue, excessive hunger, or increased thirst, Treatment: Glyburide (Micronase), Glipizide​/​metformin, Metformin​/​pioglitazone, Glipizide (Glucotrol)

Sources via

Skeletal System

State the function of the system

To provide structure for the body and let muscles and such have a place of attachment

State the roles of bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons, and nerves in human movement

Bones- Support and act like a barrier under the skin

Ligaments- Most important job is to prevent body movement that could damage a joint

Muscles- Role of the muscles is to give us strength

Tendons- work together with muscles to move bones

Nerves- they transmit the instructions to move the body or part of the body as the brain says to

Provide a picture of a labeled skeleton


Draw and label a picture of the long bone

Name 2 disorders

Arthritis- it can cause pain, and restrict movement from the host

Bone Cancer- Damages the stem cells, and may come up as a second form of cancer, such as prostate

Muscular System

State the function of the system

Main function is to help the body with movement

Draw and describe the 3 types of muscle tissue

Smooth- Found in the walls of hollow organs

Cardiac- Exists only in your heart

Skeletal- Produces movement, maintains posture, stabilises joints and generates heat

Draw and label a diagram to show the structure of a sarcomere, including Z lines,actin filaments, myosin filaments with heads, and the light and dark bands.

Explain how skeletal muscle contracts, including the release of calcium ions from the sarco plasmic reticulum, the formation of cross-bridges, the sliding of actin and myosin filaments and the use of ATP.

Calcium ions expose the myosin heads by binding to a blocking molecule and causing it to move and the myosin heads form a cross-bridge with actin binding sites

2 major disorders

Polymyositis- characterized by inflammation and progressive weakening of the skeletal muscles.

Dermatomyositis- which is polymyositis accompanied by a skin rash

Nervous System

Function of system

Responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts

Define central nervous system and peripheral nervous system and list the major parts of each

CNS- Major parts are spinal cord, and the brain.

PNS- Its divided into to parts

Draw and label a diagram of the structure of a motor neuron


Draw and label a diagram of a simple reflex arc and explain its elements


Label and describe the functions of the major regions of the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem and cerebellum

CH- Divides the brain in half vertically

Diencephalon- Gives rise to posterior forebrain structures.

Brain stem- holds the brain in place

Cerebellum- Like the motor of the brain

2 major disorders

Epilepsy- The trigger of a seizure due to bright flashing colors

Alzheimer's- Basically, where you start forgetting things and people, no cure, but symptoms are memory loss, judgement and thinking

Reproductive System

State function

the function is to reproduce and have offspring

Briefly describe the basic process of spermatogenesis

to turn each one of the diploid spermatogonium into four haploid sperm cells

Briefly describe the basic processes involved in oogenesis.  Why is there an unequal division of cytoplasm?

leads to the production of one final ovum, or egg cell, from each primary oocyte. unequal division makes sure the egg has enough supplies for the time period

2 major disorders

HIV- it destroys the body’s ability to fight infections and other life-threatening illnesses

HPV- A disease that is transferred through sexual activity with an infected partner