Valence electron: electrons in the outermost shell of the atom determining the reactivity of the element and group it is in.
Group: columns on the periodic table; same group means same valence electron with the exception of helium.
Period: the horizontal row of the periodic table.
Actinoid series/ lanthanoid series: the strand of elements at the bottom of the periodic table which has their highest energy in the f sub level.
Knowing Electron Configurations by Reading the Periodic Table
There are also the lanthanoids and actinoids who are in groups f1-f14. Similarly to the d sub-level, the f sub-level overlaps by 2 in this case, which means the coefficient is now 2 less than the actual period number.
Chemistry in society
- Place 1g on iron filings into a test
- Add 4 cubic centimeters of 6M hydrochloric acid to the test tube
- Place 1g of iron (III) chloride into a separate test tube
- Add 4 cubic centimeters of Water to the test tube
- Put stoppers in both of the test tubes and shake until some of the solid has dissolved
Iron loses two electrons to form the pale green substance in the first test tube. Iron loses three electrons to form the yellow iron(III). The electrons lost are the outermost electrons on the valence electron shell. It would take electrons from the D sublevel before it would take from the S sublevel