M. David Merrill (2002)
- (Analysis) Initiate a whole task or problem of the type that learners will be taught to accomplish by the instruction. Having identified an initial problem.
- (Design )Identify a progression of such problems of increasing difficulty or complexity such that if learners are able to do all of the whole tasks thus identified, they would have mastered the knowledge and skill to be taught.
- (Development) Identify the component knowledge and skill required to complete each task or solve each problem in the progression.
- (Implementation)Determine the instructional strategy that will be used to engage learners in the problems and help them acquire the component knowledge and skill required to complete the tasks or solve the problems
- (Evaluation)Interface design. It is at this point in the design process that the content to be learned and the strategy used to engage learners are adapted to the delivery system and instructional architecture of the learning situation or product.
Context For Use
Model can be used across learning environments:
- Higher education
- Business & Industry
- Pebble-in-the-Pond is a viable alternative to traditional ISD and overcomes some of the major objections raised.
- Pebble-in-the-Pond model is more effective and efficient than instruction that fails to implement these principles.
- Pebble-in-the-Pond is a viable alternative to traditional ISD and overcomes some of the major objections raised by Gordon and Zemke (2000).
- Pebble-in-the-Pond is a more efficient development process.
- Pebble-in-the-Pond implements first principles of instruction that have been demonstrated to make learning more effective and efficient.
- Pebble-in-the-Pond results in instruction that works and it is consistent with the current view of requiring authentic experience in real-world problems.
- The preparation of this paper was supported in part by funds provided by Thompson/Netg.