Significant Facts about Colonies
By Joy Kim
- Founded on May 21, 1607
- Virginia Company of London got charter from King James I of England (1606).
-VA Company's charter guaranteed settlers the same rights as Englishmen in England.
- Capt. John Smith took over Jamestown (1608)
- Men died due to starvation, malnutrition, and diseases because they spent all their time searching for gold.
-wanted to find gold like Spain
-were unprepared for first winter in 1609-1610
-led to cannibalism
- Relationship between settlers and Native Americans were not good, especially after Lord De La Warr arrived (Spring 1610).
- John Rolfe was known as the father of the tobacco industry.
- The Dutch arrived and sold about 20 Africans in 1619.
-started the North American slavery system
- Representative self-government was created.
-Settlers were allowed to make an assembly called the House of Burgesses.
- The first Anglo-Powhatan War ended in 1614 with a peace settlement.
- The second Anglo-Powhatan War ended with the peace treaty of 1646, which resulted in the banishment of Native Americans from ancestral lands and the separation of Native American and White areas.
- The Massachusetts Bay Company was a group of non-Separatist Puritans who secured a royal charter in 1629.
- Of the 70,000 refugees that left England during the "Great Migration" in the 1630s, only 20,000 came to Massachusetts.
- John Winthrop was the colony's first governor, and he set up a theocratic government.
- Only "freemen" (adult males belonging to the Congregational Church) had a say in the provincial government, while all male property holders could vote in town governments.
-Women were voteless.
- The provincial government was not a democracy.
-Elected governors and General Court consisted of only Puritans.
- Even people who were not Puritans had to pay taxes to a government-supported church.
- Religious leaders influenced the Massachusetts "Bible Commonwealth" greatly.
-"Bible Commonwealth" - theocratic political economy that centered all laws around God.
- Quakers were often punished with banishment, fines, and floggings, due to ignoring the Puritan clergy authority.
- Anne Hutchinson was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1638 to prevent spreading her extreme ideas of predestination.
-believed there was no need to obey the laws of God or man because there was no for sure sign of salvation
- Roger Williams was also banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1635 for "spreading new and dangerous opinions."
-questioned the legality of the colony's charter because they took the land from the Native Americans unfairly.
-did not believe government had power to decide one's religious behavior
- William Penn received a charter for Pennsylvania in 1681.
- The settlers of Pennsylvania had a good relationship with the Native Americans, until more non-Quaker settlers from Europe arrived and disagreed with the Quakers' policy toward the Native Americans.
- The government was very liberal and had a representative assembly elected by property holders.
- Unlike the Massachusetts Bay colony, the settlers in Pennsylvania did not have to pay taxes to a government-supported church.
- There was religious tolerance for all settlers, except Catholics and Jews could not vote or hold office.
- Although there was religious freedom, there were still "blue laws" that prohibited ungodly activities, such as stage plays, dice, games, and excessive amusement.
- The Quakers of Pennsylvania were very peaceful and easy-going. They did not care much about military defense, and immigration was very easy.
- The Quakers did not approve of black slavery.
- The people of Pennsylvania exported grains and other foods, which helped increase the population of the colony.
- Although William Penn was the founder of Pennsylvania, he only spent a total of four years living there.
- Maryland was founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore (George Calvert).
- It was the second plantation colony and fourth English colony to be formed.
- Lord Baltimore created Maryland for profits and a refuge for Catholics.
- He planned to govern as an absentee proprietor in a feudal relationship.
- Maryland was founded at St. Mary's, on Chesapeake Bay.
- The Catholic colony was surrounded by neighboring Protestant colonies, which resulted in a lot of tension.
- Maryland focused on growing acres of tobacco.
- The colony depended on indentured servants at first to do all of the labor.
- The Act of Toleration was written in 1649. It was a document that tolerated all Christians, but did not approve of religions that did not believe in the divinity of Jesus.
- Due to the strict policy against religions that questioned Jesus, Jews were forced to relocate. This caused Maryland to become somewhat less tolerant than before the Act of Toleration.
- Georgia was the last of the original thirteen colonies to be founded. It was founded in 1733.
- Its main purpose was to protect the Carolinas from the French in Louisiana and the Spaniards in Florida. Hence the nickname, the "Buffer Colony".
- Georgia was the only colony that received money rewards from the British government because it was a vital part of defense.
- Georgia was named after King George II of England.
- Other reasons for creating Georgia, included providing silk, wine, and a haven for people in-debt.
- The colony was founded by James Oglethorpe and other philanthropists.
- Savannah, Georgia was a great melting pot that tolerated most religions.
- John Wesley began his missionary work in Savannah, Georgia until he later returned to England and founded the Methodist Church.
- Georgia was the least popular of the thirteen colonies.
- It had an unsuccessful plantation economy due to poor climate, restrictions on black slavery, and constant attacks from the Spanish.