Cell organelles

Amanda Fritsch pd2

Plasma or cell membrane

The plasma or cell membrane is a double layer of phospholipids. It encloses the cell and keeps all parts of the cell in and unwanted particle out. The membrane is semipermeable to let certain things in and out. It is found in both plant and animal cells.

Cell wall

The cell wall is a rigid, protective outer layer that is made of polysaccharides. It provides and maintains the shape of plants and acts as a barrier. Cell walls are only found in plant cells.

Cytoplasm

cytoplasm is mostly water and it's full of proteins. It is the plural term of cytosol. all organelles are contained in the cytoplasm. It is where most of the cellular metabolism occurs. Cytoplasm exists in both plant and animal cells.

Nucleus

The nucleus is the largest organelle in a cell. It contains nucleoplasm, nucleoli, and DNA. the nucleus acts as the control center. It is responsible for protein instruction and transmitting DNA when a cell divides. The nucleus can be found in both plant and animal cells.

Nuclear membrane (envelope)

The nuclear membrane is a lipid bilayer that surrounds the nucleus. Its purpose is to protect the nucleus and to regulate what enters and leaves it. It can be found in both animal and plant cells.

Nucleolus

The nucleolus is a small, dense body within the nucleus. it is composed of ribosomal RNA and proteins. The nucleolus is the site of ribosome subunit manufacturing. It can be found in plant and animal cells.

Centrioles

Centrioles are found near the nucleus. They are a small set of microtubules arranged a specific way. They move in opposite directions of the nucleus when the cell starts to divide. This organelle can only be found in animal cells.

Chromatin

Chromatin is a granular, thread like material composed of DNA and histone protein. It strengthens DNA so that mitosis and meiosis can occur and controls DNA replication. It is found in both animal and plant cells.

Ribosomes

Ribosomes are dense particle that consist of two subunits, both composed od ribosomal RNA and protein. They can be found "free" through out the cytoplasm or on part of the ER. that's what forms the rough ER. Their purpose is to handle the production of protein. Ribosomes are in animal and plant cells.

Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus is a sack of smooth membrane sacs. It looks similar to a stack of pancakes. It's purpose is to package and release proteins, as well as stores them. It is in both plant and animal cells.

Mitochondria

The mitochondria is a membrane bound organelle. it is the shape of a bean. The purpose of mitochondria is to provide energy to the cell. This organelle is found in both plant and animal cells.

Chloroplast

Chloroplast is an organelle found only in plant cells. It is responsible for photo synthesis in plants and give plants their green color. They can have round, oval or dick shaped bodies.

Lysosomes

Lysosomes are rough, spherical shaped bodies. They hold enzymes, help with digestion and kill bacteria. Lysosomes can be found in plant cells as well as animal cells.

Peroxisomes

Peroxisomes are small vesicles that are found around the cell. They hold oxidative enzymes, absorb nutrients, and digest fatty acids and amino acids. this type of organelle is exclusive to animal cells.

Vacuole

Vacuoles are membrane bound sacs. They are found in both plant and animal cells, but they're larger in plant cells. In animal cells, they act like lysosomes. Their purpose is to store nutrients, break down waste, help the cell grow, and maintain the cells shape.

Cytoskeleton

The cytoskeleton is an organized network of proteins like microfilaments and microtubules in cytoplasm. Its purpose is to provide structure in cells. This organelle is found in both plant and animal cells.