Most students want to use mobile devices in the classroom more often than they do now. This is especially true for younger students (Harris Interactive, 2015).

Most students feel that they know more about tablets and other computers than their teachers. This is true even for elementary school students (Harris Interactive, 2015).

Smartphone usage has increased across all grade levels and is most prevalent among older students. In 2015,

  • 53% of elementary school students,

  • 66% of middle school students and

  • 82% of high school students use smartphones regularly. (Harris Interactive, 2015).


The Issue

“A digital use divide continues to exist between learners who are using technology in active, creative ways to support their learning and those who predominantly use technology for passive content consumption” (NETP, 2016).

“Today’s students are no longer the people our educational system was designed to teach” (Prensky, 2001, p. 1).

“Across the board, teacher preparation and professional development programs fail to prepare teachers to use technology in effective ways” (NETP, 2016).

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A Need for Professional Development

A growing body of research presents the idea that our primary focus professional development must not be on the technology itself but how the technology can be used for instruction (Carr, Jonassen, Litzinger & Marra, 1998; Mishra & Koehler, 2003).

Researchers and educators in the field believe that successful integration of technology must be “rooted primarily in curriculum content-related learning process, and secondarily in savvy use of educational technologies” (Harris & Hofer, 2011, p. 211).

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Theoretical Framework

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)

  • In 2006 Punya Mishra and Matthew Koehler published a conceptual framework for educational technology titled, Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge.

  • The TPACK (TPCK) Model expanded on Schulman's work (1987) of combining teacher content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge into the PCK model.

  • The TPACK model continues to be used as a framework for integrating emerging technologies into the classroom.

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Reproduced by permission of the publisher, © 2012 by tpack.org

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TPACK as a Model for Professional Development


This explanatory case study was designed to gain a better understanding of how and a if a professional development plan centered around the ideals of the TPACK framework influenced teachers’ capacity for integration of technology into their teaching practices.

The intent of this case study is to provide details and insights into the decisions teachers' make regarding how, why and for what purpose technology is utilized in a lesson.

Research Questions

  • How did participation in the Tech & Teaching Tuesday Professional Development program influence teacher’s integration of technology into classroom curriculum?

  • How and why do teacher make decisions in regards to content and pedagogy to facilitate inclusion of technology?

  • Did teachers’ method of technology integration in lessons meet the TPACK model of instruction?

Participants & Setting

  • Midway High School

  • 5 Teachers - Ranging in Experience from 2 years to 16 years

  • Core Content Areas Teachers

  • All teachers will return to the same teaching position this year

  • All teach a single subject


  • An explanatory case study method will be used to observe the contemporary social issue that is bounded by the setting at Midway High School.

  • The study is a Single Case design with multiple embedded cases.

Data Collection

Triangulation of Data
  • Observations; collected using field notes and the TPACK Rubric Tool
  • Initial Interviews for data collection regarding demographic and belief questions
  • Interviews following the Observation
  • Teacher and Student Artifacts; Lesson Plans, Instructional Aides, Student Projects

A case study database will be utilized to record findings

A chain of evidence will be maintained.

Data Analysis

A Constant Comparison Analysis will be used to code data for similarities and differences to develop categories.


Earle, R. S. (2002). The integration of instructional technology into public education: Promisesand challenges. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY-SADDLE BROOK THEN ENGLEWOOD CLIFFS NJ-, 42(1), 5-13.

Harris Interactive. (2015). Pearson Student Mobile Device Survey 2015. National Report:

Students in Grades 4-12

Harris, J., Grandgenett, N., & Hofer, M. (2010). Testing a TPACK-based technology

integration assessment rubric. In Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education

International Conference (Vol. 2010, No. 1, pp. 3833-3840).

Harris, J., & Hofer, M. (2009). Instructional planning activity types as vehicles for

curriculum-based TPACK development. In Society for Information Technology &

Teacher Education International Conference (Vol. 2009, No. 1, pp. 4087-4095).

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. The Teachers College Record,108(6), 1017-1054.

Papert, S. (1990). A critique of technocentrism in thinking about the school of the future.

Epistemology and Learning Group, MIT Media Laboratory.

Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon 9(5), 1-6.

Shulman, L. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational

researcher, 4-14.