Protein Synthesis

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Central Dogma

The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system.

Central Dogma is considered to be the basic need for life to exist. It allows proteins to be synthesised to create life. Central Dogma allows for evolution to occur and for life to continue evolving into bigger and better things

Proteins constitute more than half the total dry mass of a cell, and their synthesis is central to cell maintenance, growth, and development. Protein synthesis occurs on ribosomes. It depends on the collaboration of several classes of RNA molecules and begins with a series of preparatory steps.



Transcription of DNA to RNA to protein: This dogma forms the backbone of molecular biology and is represented by four major stages.


  1. The DNA replicates its information in a process that involves many enzymes: replication.
  2. The DNA codes for the production of messenger RNA (mRNA) during transcription.
  3. In eucaryotic cells, the mRNA is processed (essentially by splicing and adding a Poly-A tail and a 5' cap) and migrates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
  4. Messenger RNA carries coded information to ribosomes. The ribosomes "read" this information and use it for protein synthesis. This process is called translation.


Proteins do not code for the production of protein, RNA or DNA.
They are involved in almost all biological activities, structural or enzymatic.


This is a more detailed diagram of what happens during protein synthesis within a cell.