Article #1

Effective Reading and Writing Instruction

Amanda Morgan

Section B

Main Ideas

This article provides a more in depth look at modeling and what makes it effective. It really focused on how teachers can use modeling when teaching students to use cognitive learning strategies. Teachers should tailor their modeling instruction to meet the specific needs of their students. For example, students that are struggling (whether it's because of an LD, language, etc.) may need more explicit modeling from the teacher than other students do.

Key Points:
-The 3 modeling essentials:
  • Specifically model when to use the strategy and why.
  • Explicitly model how to use all of the strategy steps.
  • Model how to be flexible in strategy selection and application.

-Teachers need to pay attention to how their students are doing with the implementation of strategies. If necessary, teachers should make adjustments or scaffold instruction when necessary.

-THINK ALOUD. This is a great way to allow students to hear the teacher's internal thought process. It is also a great demonstration of what it means to use strategies while learning.

-Use self statements (see picture below)

After seeing the teacher model cognitive strategies, and then practicing on their own, the hope is that eventually, using cognitive learning strategies will become natural for students.

Personal Reflection

I found that this article really helped me obtain a better understanding of modeling. I now feel confident that I will be able to do a good job of modeling (especially modeling cognitive strategies) for my students. I appreciate that the article highlighted the three essentials of modeling. I may keep a little note on my desk as a reminder that says "specific, explicit, and flexible." One very important point that the article made is that teachers need to think aloud. We can't assume that students magically know what we are thinking, so it is important that we give them an inside look at our thought process through a think aloud. Kids are big on imitating others. They like copying what others do and following their lead. If teachers are often thinking aloud to demonstrate strategic learning, I think that students will begin to do the same. This article is very important because it not only teaches us how to use modeling, but it teaches us how to model effectively. After learning so much about effective modeling, I will be sure to do what is necessary to effectively model for my students.


1. If you have time for modeling for the entire class, but not one-on-one, how do you make sure that your modeling is at a degree of explicitness that meets the needs of all of your students?
2. What are some ways that you can encourage students to use cognitive strategies outside of the classroom?
3. What can you do to make sure that you are spending enough time on modeling?

Additional Resources

Model Think-Aloud strategy
Think Alouds: Modeling Ways to Think About Text (Virtual Tour)


Regan, K., & Berkeley, S. (2011). Effective Reading and Writing Instruction: A Focus on Modeling. Intervention in School and Clinic, 276-282.