Cellular Processes

By: Abi Johnston

Homeostasis

~Cell Wall- Keeps the cell from being harmed

~Plasma Membrane- Keeps cell contents in and foreign material out and provides avenues for the transportation of fuel, fluid, and waste.

~Nucleus- Expressing genes that lead to proteins that are enzymes, that drive chemical reactions to maintain homeostasis.

*Permeability is the quality of a membrane that allows liquid to pass through it

*Diffusion is the movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration

*Osmosis is a process in which molecules pass through a semipermeable membrane from a low to high concentration.

Energy Conversion

~Mitochondria- Converts energy from the sun to ATP, energy that the cell can use

~Chloroplast- Through the process of photosynthesis, they convert the sun's energy into glucose

~Plasma Membrane- Used to produce ATP in Prokaryotes

Transport

~Plasma Membrane- Carries molecules across the concentration gradient

~Golgi Apparatus- Processes proteins made by the endoplasmic reticulum before sending them out to the cell

~Endoplasmic Reticulum- Synthesizes the cell membranes, transporting proteins across the cell

~Vesicles- Pinch off of one set of membranes and travel along microtubule tracks to the next set of membranes, where they fuse with these structures.

~Cytoplasm- Works to transport materials from one part of the cell to the other

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*Active Transport is the movement of molecules across the cell membrane from low to high concentration, requiring energy.

*Passive transport is the movement of biochemicals across the cell membrane, does not require energy.

*Endocytosis is the taking in of matter by a living cell

*Exocytosis is a process of releasing material from the cell vacuole

*Phagocytosis is the ingestion of bacteria by phagocytes

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Synthesis

~Ribosomes- synthesize the proteins released into the perinuclear space

~Chloroplasts- Synthesis of fatty acids, amino acids and the immune response in plants

~Mitochondria- Responsible for ATP synthesis