Civil Rights Era

Layne Wadlington

1. Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

-May 1954

-segregation in the public schools was "inherently unequal" and unconstitutional

-startled conservatives because it reversed the courts decision in 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson which declared "separate but equal"

2. Civil Rights Act


-permanent Civil Rights Commission to investigate violations of Civil Rights and authorized federal injunctions to invest voting rights

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3. Southern Christian Leadership Conference


-mobilize the vast power of the black churches on behalf of black rights

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4. Sit-in Movement

-February 1, 1960

-they demanded service at a whites-only Woolworth’s lunch counter

-burned swiftly across the South, swelling into a wave of wade-ins, lie-ins, and pray-ins to compel equal treatment in restaurants, transportation, employment, housing, and voter registration

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5. Montgomery Bus Boycott

-December 1955

-Rosa Parks took a seat in the "whites only" section and refused to give it up

-Her arrest for violating the Jim Crow laws sparked a year long boycott of the city buses and and showed that the blacks would not stand for such discrimination any longer

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6. "I Have a Dream" Speech

-Martin Luther King Jr.

-August 1963

-called for an end to racism in the United States

-ranked one of the top American speeches

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7. Voting Rights Act


-outlawed discriminatory voting practices

-prohibits states from imposing any "voting qualification to voting, or standard, practice, or deny or abridge the right of any citizen of the United States to vote on account of race or color

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8. 24th Amendment

-August 1962

-ratified January 1964

-prohibits Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax

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9. Sweatt v. Painter


-separate professional schools for blacks failed to meet the test of equality

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10. Central High School

-September 1957

-Little Rock, Arkansas

-National Guard prevented nine black students from enrolling in the high school

-Eisenhower sent troops to escort children to their classes

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