Business Plan Guide
Access to Business Management
I. Table of Contents
I. Table of Contents ................................................................................................... 3
II. Executive Summary ............................................................................................... 4
III. General Company Description ............................................................................ 5
IV. Products and Services............................................................................................ 6
V. Marketing Plan ....................................................................................................... 7
VI. Operational Plan .................................................................................................. 16
VII. Management and Organization ......................................................................... 21
VIII. Personal Financial Statement ............................................................................. 22
IX. Startup Expenses and Capitalization ................................................................ 23
X. Financial Plan ....................................................................................................... 24
XI. Appendices ........................................................................................................... 27
XII. Refining the Plan .................................................................................................. 28
Write this section last.
We suggest that you make it two pages or fewer.
Include everything that you would cover in a five
Explain the fundamentals of the proposed business: What will your product be? Who
will your customers be? Who are the owners? What do you think the future holds for
your business and your industry?
Make it enthusiastic, professional, complete, and concise.
If applying for a loan, state clearly how much you want, precisely how you are going to
use it, and how the money will make your business more profitable, thereby ensuring
III. General Company Description
What business will you be in? What will you do?
Mission Statement: Many companies have a brief mission statement, usually in 30
words or fewer, explaining their reason for being and their guiding principles. If you
want to draft a mission statement, this is a good place to put it in the plan, followed by:
Company Goals and Objectives: Goals are destinations—where you want your business
to be. Objectives are progress markers along the way to goal achievement. For example,
a goal might be to have a healthy, successful company that is a leader in customer
service and that has a loyal customer following. Objectives might be annual sales targets
and some specific measures of customer satisfaction.
Business Philosophy: What is important to you in business?
To whom will you market your products? (State it briefly here—you will do a more
thorough explanation in the
Marketing Plan section).
Describe your industry. Is it a growth industry? What changes do you foresee in the
industry, short term and long term? How will your company be poised to take
advantage of them?
Describe your most important company strengths and core competencies. What factors
will make the company succeed? What do you think your major competitive strengths
will be? What background experience, skills, and strengths do you personally bring to
this new venture?
Legal form of ownership: Sole proprietor, Partnership, Corporation, Limited liability
corporation (LLC)? Why have you selected this form?
IV. Products and Services
Describe in depth your products or services (technical specifications, drawings, photos,
sales brochures, and other bulky items belong in
What factors will give you competitive advantages or disadvantages? Examples include
level of quality or unique or proprietary features.
What are the pricing, fee, or leasing structures of your products or services?
V. Marketing Plan
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Market research - Why?
V. Marketing Plan
No matter how good your product and your service, the venture cannot succeed
without effective marketing. And this begins with careful, systematic research. It is very
dangerous to assume that you already know about your intended market. You need to
do market research to make sure you’re on track. Use the business planning process as
your opportunity to uncover data and to question your marketing efforts. Your time
will be well spent.
Market research - How?
There are two kinds of market research: primary and secondary.
Secondary research means using published information such as industry profiles, trade
journals, newspapers, magazines, census data, and demographic profiles. This type of
information is available in public libraries, industry associations, chambers of
commerce, from vendors who sell to your industry, and from government agencies.
Start with your local library. Most librarians are pleased to guide you through their
business data collection. You will be amazed at what is there. There are more online
sources than you could possibly use. Your chamber of commerce has good information
on the local area. Trade associations and trade publications often have excellent
Primary research means gathering your own data. For example, you could do your own
traffic count at a proposed location, use the yellow pages to identify competitors, and
do surveys or focus
‐group interviews to learn about consumer preferences.
Professional market research can be very costly, but there are many books that show
small business owners how to do effective research themselves.
In your marketing plan, be as specific as possible; give statistics, numbers, and sources.
The marketing plan will be the basis, later on, of the all
‐important sales projection.
Facts about your industry:
What is the total size of your market?
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What percent share of the market will you have? (This is important only if you
think you will be a major factor in the market.)
Current demand in target market.
Trends in target market—growth trends, trends in consumer preferences, and
trends in product development.
Growth potential and opportunity for a business of your size.
What barriers to entry do you face in entering this market with your new
company? Some typical barriers are:
High capital costs
High production costs
High marketing costs
Consumer acceptance and brand recognition
Training and skills
Unique technology and patents
Tariff barriers and quotas
And of course, how will you overcome the barriers?
How could the following affect your company?
Change in technology
Change in government regulations
Change in the economy
Change in your industry
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Products and Services section, you described your products and services as you see
them. Now describe them from your customers’ point of view.
Features and Benefits
List all of your major products or services.
For each product or service:
Describe the most important features. What is special about it?
Describe the benefits. That is, what will the product do for the customer?
Note the difference between features and benefits, and think about them. For example,
a house that gives shelter and lasts a long time is made with certain materials and to a
certain design; those are its features. Its benefits include pride of ownership, financial
security, providing for the family, and inclusion in a neighborhood. You build features
into your product so that you can sell the benefits.
‐sale services will you give? Some examples are delivery, warranty,
service contracts, support, follow
‐up, and refund policy.
Identify your targeted customers, their characteristics, and their geographic locations,
otherwise known as their demographics.
The description will be completely different depending on whether you plan to sell to
other businesses or directly to consumers. If you sell a consumer product, but sell it
through a channel of distributors, wholesalers, and retailers, you must carefully analyze
both the end consumer and the middleman businesses to which you sell.
You may have more than one customer group. Identify the most important groups.
Then, for each customer group, construct what is called a demographic profile:
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Social class and occupation
Other (specific to your industry)
Other (specific to your industry)
For business customers, the demographic factors might be:
Industry (or portion of an industry)
Size of firm
Quality, technology, and price preferences
Other (specific to your industry)
Other (specific to your industry)
What products and companies will compete with you?
List your major competitors:
(Names and addresses)
Will they compete with you across the board, or just for certain products, certain
customers, or in certain locations?
Will you have important indirect competitors? (For example, video rental stores
compete with theaters, although they are different types of businesses.)
How will your products or services compare with the competition?
Use the Competitive Analysis table below to compare your company with your two
most important competitors. In the first column are key competitive factors. Since these
vary from one industry to another, you may want to customize the list of factors.
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In the column labeled
Me, state how you honestly think you will stack up in customersʹ
minds. Then check whether you think this factor will be a strength or a weakness for
you. Sometimes it is hard to analyze our own weaknesses. Try to be very honest here.
Better yet, get some disinterested strangers to assess you. This can be a real eye
And remember that you cannot be all things to all people. In fact, trying to be causes
many business failures because efforts become scattered and diluted. You want an
honest assessment of your firm
ʹs strong and weak points.
Now analyze each major competitor. In a few words, state how you think they compare.
In the final column, estimate the importance of each competitive factor to the customer.
1 = critical; 5 = not very important.
Table 1: Competitive Analysis
See template below
Now, write a short paragraph stating your competitive advantages and disadvantages.
Now that you have systematically analyzed your industry, your product, your
customers, and the competition, you should have a clear picture of where your
company fits into the world.
In one short paragraph, define your niche, your unique corner of the market.
Now outline a marketing strategy that is consistent with your niche.
How will you get the word out to customers?
Advertising: What media, why, and how often? Why this mix and not some other?
Have you identified low
‐cost methods to get the most out of your promotional
Will you use methods other than paid advertising, such as trade shows, catalogs, dealer
incentives, word of mouth (how will you stimulate it?), and network of friends or
What image do you want to project? How do you want customers to see you?
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In addition to advertising, what plans do you have for graphic image support? This
includes things like logo design, cards and letterhead, brochures, signage, and interior
design (if customers come to your place of business).
Should you have a system to identify repeat customers and then systematically contact
How much will you spend on the items listed above?
Before startup? (These numbers will go into your startup budget.)
Ongoing? (These numbers will go into your operating plan budget.)
Explain your method or methods of setting prices. For most small businesses, having
the lowest price is not a good policy. It robs you of needed profit margin; customers
may not care as much about price as you think; and large competitors can under price
you anyway. Usually you will do better to have average prices and compete on quality
Does your pricing strategy fit with what was revealed in your competitive analysis?
Compare your prices with those of the competition. Are they higher, lower, the same?
How important is price as a competitive factor? Do your intended customers really
make their purchase decisions mostly on price?
What will be your customer service and credit policies?
Probably you do not have a precise location picked out yet. This is the time to think
about what you want and need in a location. Many startups run successfully from home
for a while.
You will describe your physical needs later, in the
Operational Plan section. Here,
analyze your location criteria as they will affect your customers.
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Is your location important to your customers? If yes, how?
If customers come to your place of business:
Is it convenient? Parking? Interior spaces? Not out of the way?
Is it consistent with your image?
Is it what customers want and expect?
Where is the competition located? Is it better for you to be near them (like car dealers or
fast food restaurants) or distant (like convenience food stores)?
How do you sell your products or services?
Direct (mail order, Web, catalog)
Your own sales force
Bid on contracts
Now that you have described your products, services, customers, markets, and
marketing plans in detail, it’s time to attach some numbers to your plan. Use a
to prepare a month‐by‐month projection. The forecast should
be based on your historical sales, the marketing strategies that you have just
described, your market research, and industry data, if available.
You may want to do two forecasts: 1) a
ʺbest guessʺ, which is what you really expect,
and 2) a
ʺworst caseʺ low estimate that you are confident you can reach no matter what
Remember to keep notes on your research and your assumptions as you build this sales
forecast and all subsequent spreadsheets in the plan. This is critical if you are going to
present it to funding sources.
VI. Operational Plan
Explain the daily operation of the business, its location, equipment, people, processes, and surrounding environment.
How and where are your products or services produced? Explain your methods of:
• Production techniques and costs
• Quality control
• Customer service
• Inventory control
• Product development
What qualities do you need in a location? Describe the type of location you’ll have. Physical requirements:
• Amount of space
• Type of building
• Power and other utilities
Is it important that your location be convenient to transportation or to suppliers? Do you need easy walk‐in access?
What are your requirements for parking and proximity to freeway, airports, railroads, and shipping centers?
Include a drawing or layout of your proposed facility if it is important, as it might be for a manufacturer.
Construction? Most new companies should not sink capital into construction, but if you are planning to build, costs and specifications will be a big part of your plan.
Cost: Estimate your occupation expenses, including rent, but also including maintenance, utilities, insurance, and initial remodeling costs to make the space suit your needs. These numbers will become part of your financial plan.
What will be your business hours?
Describe the following:
• Licensing and bonding requirements
• Health, workplace, or environmental regulations
• Special regulations covering your industry or profession
• Zoning or building code requirements
• Insurance coverage
• Trademarks, copyrights, or patents (pending, existing, or purchased)
• Number of employees
• Type of labor (skilled, unskilled, and professional)
• Where and how will you find the right employees?
• Quality of existing staff
• Pay structure
• Training methods and requirements
• Who does which tasks?
• Do you have schedules and written procedures prepared?
• Have you drafted job descriptions for employees? If not, take time to write some.
They really help internal communications with employees.
• For certain functions, will you use contract workers in addition to employees?
• What kind of inventory will you keep: raw materials, supplies, finished goods?
• Average value in stock (i.e., what is your inventory investment)?
• Rate of turnover and how this compares to the industry averages?
• Seasonal buildups?
• Lead‐time for ordering?
Identify key suppliers:
• Names and addresses
• Type and amount of inventory furnished
• Credit and delivery policies
• History and reliability
Should you have more than one supplier for critical items (as a backup)? Do you expect shortages or short‐term delivery problems?
Are supply costs steady or fluctuating? If fluctuating, how would you deal with changing costs?
• Do you plan to sell on credit?
• Do you really need to sell on credit? Is it customary in your industry and expected by your clientele?
• If yes, what policies will you have about who gets credit and how much?
• How will you check the creditworthiness of new applicants?
• What terms will you offer your customers; that is, how much credit and when is payment due?
• Will you offer prompt payment discounts? (Hint: Do this only if it is usual and customary in your industry.)
• Do you know what it will cost you to extend credit? Have you built the costs into your prices?
Managing Your Accounts Receivable
If you do extend credit, you should do an aging at least monthly to track how much of your money is tied up in credit given to customers and to alert you to slow payment problems. A receivables aging looks like the following table:
Over 90 Days
You will need a policy for dealing with slow‐paying customers:
• When do you make a phone call?
• When do you send a letter?
• When do you get your attorney to threaten?
Managing Your Accounts Payable
You should also age your accounts payable, what you owe to your suppliers. This helps you plan whom to pay and when. Paying too early depletes your cash, but paying late can cost you valuable discounts and can damage your credit. (Hint: If you know you will be late making a payment, call the creditor before the due date.)
Do your proposed vendors offer prompt payment discounts? A payables aging looks like the following table.
Over 90 Days
VII. Management and Organisation
Who will manage the business on a day‐to‐day basis? What experience does that person bring to the business? What special or distinctive competencies? Is there a plan
for continuation of the business if this person is lost or incapacitated?
If you’ll have more than 10 employees, create an organizational chart showing the management hierarchy and who is responsible for key functions.
Include position descriptions for key employees. If you are seeking loans or investors, include resumes of owners and key employees.
Professional and Advisory Support
List the following:
• Board of directors
• Management advisory board
• Insurance agent
• Consultant or consultants
• Mentors and key advisors
VIII. Personal Financial Statement
Include personal financial statements for each owner and major stockholder, showing assets and liabilities held outside the business and personal net worth. Owners will often have to draw on personal assets to finance the business, and these statements will show what is available. Bankers and investors usually want this information as well.
IX. Startup Expenses and Capitalisation
You will have many startup expenses before you even begin operating your business. It’s important to estimate these expenses accurately and then to plan where you will get sufficient capital. This is a research project, and the more thorough your research
efforts, the less chance that you will leave out important expenses or underestimate
Even with the best of research, however, opening a new business has a way of costing more than you anticipate. There are two ways to make allowances for surprise expenses. The first is to add a little “padding” to each item in the budget. The problem with that approach, however, is that it destroys the accuracy of your carefully wrought plan. The second approach is to add a separate line item, called contingencies, to account for the unforeseeable. This is the approach we recommend.
Talk to others who have started similar businesses to get a good idea of how much to allow for contingencies. If you cannot get good information, we recommend a rule of thumb that contingencies should equal at least 20 percent of the total of all other start‐ up expenses.
Explain your research and how you arrived at your forecasts of expenses. Give sources, amounts, and terms of proposed loans. Also explain in detail how much will be contributed by each investor and what percent ownership each will have.
X. Financial Plan
The financial plan consists of a 12‐month profit and loss projection, a four‐year profit and loss projection (optional), a cash‐flow projection, a projected balance sheet, and a break‐even calculation. Together they constitute a reasonable estimate of your companyʹs financial future. More important, the process of thinking through
the financial plan will improve your insight into the inner financial workings of your company.
12-Month Profit and Loss Projection
Many business owners think of the 12‐month profit and loss projection as the centerpiece of their plan. This is where you put it all together in numbers and get an
idea of what it will take to make a profit and be successful.
Your sales projections will come from a sales forecast in which you forecast sales, cost of goods sold, expenses, and profit month‐by‐month for one year.
Profit projections should be accompanied by a narrative explaining the major assumptions used to estimate company income and expenses.
Research Notes: Keep careful notes on your research and assumptions, so that you can explain them later if necessary, and also so that you can go back to your sources when it’s time to revise your plan.
Three-Year Profit Projection (Optional)
Of course, keep notes of your key assumptions, especially about things that you expect will change dramatically after the first year.
Projected Cash Flow
If the profit projection is the heart of your business plan, cash flow is the blood. Businesses fail because they cannot pay their bills. Every part of your business plan is important, but none of it means a thing if you run out of cash.
The point of this worksheet is to plan how much you need before startup, for preliminary expenses, operating expenses, and reserves. You should keep updating it and using it afterward. It will enable you to foresee shortages in time to do something
about them—perhaps cut expenses, or perhaps negotiate a loan. But foremost, you shouldn’t be taken by surprise.
There is no great trick to preparing it: The cash‐flow projection is just a forward look at your checking account.
For each item, determine when you actually expect to receive cash (for sales) or when you will actually have to write a check (for expense items).
You should track essential operating data, which is not necessarily part of cash flow but allows you to track items that have a heavy impact on cash flow, such as sales and inventory purchases.
You should also track cash outlays prior to opening in a pre‐startup column. You should have already researched those for your startup expenses plan.
Your cash flow will show you whether your working capital is adequate. Clearly, if your projected cash balance ever goes negative, you will need more start‐up
capital. This plan will also predict just when and how much you will need to
Explain your major assumptions, especially those that make the cash flow differ from the Profit and Loss Projection. For example, if you make a sale in month one, when do you actually collect the cash? When you buy inventory or materials, do you pay in advance, upon delivery, or much later? How will this affect cash flow?
Are some expenses payable in advance? When?
Are there irregular expenses, such as quarterly tax payments, maintenance and repairs, or seasonal inventory buildup, that should be budgeted?
Loan payments, equipment purchases, and ownerʹs draws usually do not show on profit and loss statements but definitely do take cash out. Be sure to include them.
And of course, depreciation does not appear in the cash flow at all because you never write a check for it.
Opening Day Balance Sheet
A balance sheet is one of the fundamental financial reports that any business needs for reporting and financial management. A balance sheet shows what items of value are
held by the company (assets), and what its debts are (liabilities). When liabilities are subtracted from assets, the remainder is owners’ equity.
Use a startup expenses and capitalization spreadsheet as a guide to preparing a balance sheet as of opening day. Then detail how you calculated the account balances on your opening day balance sheet.
Optional: Some people want to add a projected balance sheet showing the estimated financial position of the company at the end of the first year. This is especially useful when selling your proposal to investors.
A break‐even analysis predicts the sales volume, at a given price, required to recover total costs. In other words, it’s the sales level that is the dividing line between operating
at a loss and operating at a profit. Expressed as a formula, break‐even is:
Break‐Even Sales = Fixed Costs
1‐ Variable Costs
(Where fixed costs are expressed in dollars, but variable costs are expressed as a percent of total sales.)
Include all assumptions upon which your break‐even calculation is based
Include details and studies used in your business plan; for example:
• Brochures and advertising materials
• Industry studies
• Blueprints and plans
• Maps and photos of location
• Magazine or other articles
• Detailed lists of equipment owned or to be purchased
• Copies of leases and contracts
• Letters of support from future customers
• Any other materials needed to support the assumptions in this plan
• Market research studies
• List of assets available as collateral for a loan
XII. Refining the Plan
The generic business plan presented above should be modified to suit your specific type of business and the audience for which the plan is written.
For Raising Capital
• Bankers want assurance of orderly repayment. If you intend using this plan to present to lenders, include:
o Amount of loan
o How the funds will be used
o What this will accomplish—how will it make the business stronger?
o Requested repayment terms (number of years to repay). You will
probably not have much negotiating room on interest rate but may be able
to negotiate a longer repayment term, which will help cash flow.
o Collateral offered, and a list of all existing liens against collateral
• Investors have a different perspective. They are looking for dramatic growth, and they expect to share in the rewards:
o Funds needed short‐term
o Funds needed in two to five years
o How the company will use the funds, and what this will accomplish for growth.
o Estimated return on investment
o Exit strategy for investors (buyback, sale, or IPO)
o Percent of ownership that you will give up to investors
o Milestones or conditions that you will accept
o Financial reporting to be provided
o Involvement of investors on the board or in management
For Type of Business
• Planned production levels
• Anticipated levels of direct production costs and indirect (overhead) costs—how do these compare to industry averages (if available)?
• Prices per product line
• Gross profit margin, overall and for each product line
• Production/capacity limits of planned physical plant
• Production/capacity limits of equipment
• Purchasing and inventory management procedures
• New products under development or anticipated to come online after startup
• Service businesses sell intangible products. They are usually more flexible than other types of businesses, but they also have higher labor costs and generally very little in fixed assets.
• What are the key competitive factors in this industry?
• Your prices
• Methods used to set prices
• System of production management
• Quality control procedures. Standard or accepted industry quality standards.
• How will you measure labor productivity?
• Percent of work subcontracted to other firms. Will you make a profit on subcontracting?
• Credit, payment, and collections policies and procedures
• Strategy for keeping client base
High Technology Companies
• Economic outlook for the industry
• Will the company have information systems in place to manage rapidly changing prices, costs, and markets?
• Will you be on the cutting edge with your products and services?
• What is the status of research and development? And what is required to:
o Bring product/service to market?
o Keep the company competitive?
• How does the company:
o Protect intellectual property?
o Avoid technological obsolescence?
o Supply necessary capital?
o Retain key personnel?
High‐tech companies sometimes have to operate for a long time without profits and sometimes even without sales. If this fits your situation, a banker probably will not
want to lend to you. Venture capitalists may invest, but your story must be very good. You must do longer‐term financial forecasts to show when profit take‐off is expected
to occur. And your assumptions must be well documented and well argued.
• Company image
o Explain markup policies.
o Prices should be profitable, competitive, and in accordance with company image.
o Selection and price should be consistent with company image.
o Inventory level: Find industry average numbers for annual inventory turnover rate (available in RMA book). Multiply your initial inventory investment by the average turnover rate. The result should be at least equal to your projected first yearʹs cost of goods sold. If it is not, you may not have enough budgeted for startup inventory.
• Customer service policies: These should be competitive and in accord with company image.
• Location: Does it give the exposure that you need? Is it convenient for customers? Is it consistent with company image?
• Promotion: Methods used, cost. Does it project a consistent company image?
• Credit: Do you extend credit to customers? If yes, do you really need to, and do you factor the cost into prices?