Evolution Of Jewish Law
Orthodox Jews believe the torah was written by God, and since all the laws come exactly from God they must obey then completely.
Reform Jews believe that the torah was not necessarily written by God but may have been inspire by God. Since they don't think the laws come straight from God they don't have to completely follow them.
Tanach is an acronym. The acronym translates to T (Torah), N (Nevi’im-prophets) and K (Ketuvim-writings).
Nevi’im is a subdivision of the Tanach. Nevi’im means the prophets in English. Nevi’im is about the lives of some prophets and about their teachings.
Talmud Balvi (Babylonian Talmud)
The Talmud was complied in the year 500 C.E. It was put together by two Babylonian sages, Ravina and Rav Ashi.The babylonian (Talmud Balvi) is considered to be the more commonly studied Talmud to date however it is not the only one. The first edition of the Babylonian Talmud was printed in Venice in 1520-23.
Talmud Yerushalim (Jerusalem Talmud)
Talmud Yerushalim was complied in 350 C.E. Rav Muna and Ruv Yossi were the ones who put it together. Talmud Yerushalim can also be called the Palestinian Talmud or the Talmud Eretz Yisrael. Talmud Yerushalim isn't studied and recognised as much as Talmud Balvi.
After the Talmud was complied, the evolution of Jewish Laws did not come to a holt. It still continued to develop. Commentators began to interpret texts from the Torah and the from the Talmud. They helped Jews all over the world understand important foundations of Judaism and Jewish texts.
Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki- Rashi
Rashi is probably the one of the most famous Jewish commentator who wrote about the Tanach and the Talmud. Rashi wrote his commentary in very simple language, so that every Jewish person could learn, understand and interpret his work. Rashi's commentaries will always be on the right of the page.
Moses Maimonides- Rambam
Moses Maimonides is probably known as one of the absolutley greatest Jewish philosophers and codifiers of Jewish laws. Rambam codified the Mishneh Torah (one of the greatest codification of Jewish law). He still carries great influence over Jewish law and the way texts are interpreted and studied today.
Josheph ben Ephrain Karo
Joseph Karo was the author of the last codification of Jewish law, which is called the "Bet Yosef". His work still has great authority to date.