Chemistry Of Life

Faith Nixon and Corin Nowak

Water

About

Almost 70 percent of our body is made up of water. Water is the medium in which most cellular events take place. Water helps move nutrients and other substances into and out of our cells. Water absorbs heat more slowly and retains this energy longer than many other substances do. H2O is the chemical formula for water that is two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom that are bonded together. In room temperature it occurs as a clear tasteless and odourless liquid. It becomes ice in temperatures below 0 degrees centigrade and boils in temperatures above 100 degrees.



cohesion and adhesion

Macromolecules

About

A macromolecule is a very large molecules commonly created by polymerization of smaller subunits. In biochemistry, the term is applied to the four conventional nucleic acids, proteins, and carbohydrates as well as non-polymeric molecules with large molecular mass such as lipids and macrocycles. The individual molecules of macromolecules are called monomers.


macromolecules

Carbohydrates

About

Molecules consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. A major food source and a key form of energy for most organisms. When combined together to form polymers, carbohydrates can function as long term food storage molecules, as protective membranes for organisms and cells, and as the main structural support for plants and constituents of many cells and their contents.


Biology Lecture - 7 - Carbohydrates

Proteins

About

large molecules consisting of amino acids which our bodies and the cells in our bodies need to function properly. Our body structures, functions, the regulation of the body's cells, tissues and organs cannot exist without proteins.The human body's muscles, skin, bones and many other parts contain high amounts of protein. In fact, protein accounts for 20% of total body fat.


Proteins

Lipids

about

Lipids are molecules that contain hydrocarbons and make up the building blocks of the structure and function of living cells. Examples of lipids include fats, oils, waxes, certain vitamins, hormones, and most of the non-protein membrane of cells.Lipids are not soluble in water. They are non-polar and are thus soluble in nonpolar environments like in choloroform but not soluble in polar environments like water.Lipids have mainly hydrocarbons in their composition and are highly reduced forms of carbon. When metabolized, lipids are oxidized to release large amounts of energy and thus are useful to living organisms.Lipids are molecules that can be extracted from plants and animals using nonpolar solvents such as ether, chloroform and acetone. Fats (and the fatty acids from which they are made) belong to this group as do other steroids, phospholipids forming cell membrane components etc.


Lipids

Nucleic Acids

About

There are two types of nucleic acids:


• Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which serves as a cellular database by storing an immense amount of information about all the polypeptides a cell can potentially make.

• Ribonucleic acid (RNA), which occurs in several different forms (messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA) and is needed to convert DNA information into polypeptide sequences; in some viruses, RNA serves as the primary database with no DNA involvement; certain RNAs have catalytic ability similar to that of protein enzymes called ribozymes. Nucleic acids are built from subunits called nucleotides.

Nucleic Acids