Chapter 14 Artistic Elements

By: Addison Land

Synopsis

Chapter 14, Artistic Elements, is about how elements can be artistic. It is about how something you may think is extremely boring like elements or the periodic table can be beautiful. The elements are the foundation of our world so of course they have connections to art. The elements are connected to art through many different ways in this chapter. Some cured madness and took away are, some have names that are art themselves. This chapter is all about how even something like elements can be artsy and fun.

Lithium

Atomic Number: 3

Atomic Mass: 6.941

Period: 2

Group: 1

Electron Configuration: 1s^2 2s^1

Classification: Alkali metal

Where it is found: Most lithium is found in brine, or water with high concentrations of lithium carbonate. Subsurface brine trapped in the Earth’s crust are the major source material for lithium carbonate. Chile and Australia are the world’s largest producers of lithium with their combined production being greater than 75% of the world’s production.

Why is this element important: Lithium is used in batteries, ceramics and glass, and rocket propellant.

Who found it and why was it named lithium: Lithium was discovered in 1817 by Johann August Arfvedson, but wasn't isolated until 1855 by Sir Humphrey Davy and Willliam Thomas Brande.

Unique Characteristics: Lithium resets your circadian rhythm and tweaks the mood-altering chemicals in your brain. Lithium will prevents future psychotic episodes, but will not stop current episodes.

Strontium

Atomic Number: 38

Atomic Mass: 87.62

Period: 5

Group:2

Electron Configuration: 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^2

Classification: Alkaline earth metal

Where it is found: Strontium is found from in the town that it was named after, Strontian, Scotland.

Why is this element important: Strontium is used to make the glass for colored televisions.

Who found it and why was it named strontium: Strontium was discovered in 1790 by Adair Crowford. It was named for the Scottish town of Strontian.

Unique Characteristics: Finely powdered strontium is very reactive and will ignite when in contact with air

Ruthenium

Atomic Number: 44

Atomic Mass: 101.07

Period: 5

Group: 8

Electron Configuration: 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^2 4d^6

Classification: Transition Metal

Where it is found: It was originally found in the Ural Mountains of Russia.

Why is this element important: Ruthenium was the first platinum element found. It is used in what is known as the fanciest pen in the world.

Who found it and why was it named ruthenium: Ruthenium was discovered in 1828 by Jons Jacob Berzelius and Gottfried W. Ossan. It was found in residue left by crude platinum ores. It is named after the latin word for Russia.

Unique Characteristics: It is unaffected by air, water, and acids.

Praseodymium

Atomic Number: 59

Atomic Mass: 140.90765

Period: 6

Group: None

Electron Configuration: 1s^ 2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^2 4d^10 5p^6 6s^2 4f^3

Classification: Lanthanide

Where it is found: Praseodymium is not found free in nature but can be found in minerals such as monazite and bastnaesite. This can be found in India, Madagascar, and South Africa.

Why is this element important: Praseodymium is used in highly intense magnets that are prudent in making electric motors and generators in hybrid cars and wind turbines.

Who found it and why was it named praseodymium: Praseodymium was founded in 1885 by Carl Auer von Welsbach. Praseodymium is Latin for "green twin" because it is almost always found with its other half neodymium which is Latin for "new twin."

Unique Characteristics: Praseodymium salts are used to color glass.

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Dysprosium

Atomic Number: 66

Atomic Mass: 162.5

Period: 6

Group: None

Electron Configuration: 1s^ 2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^2 4d^10 5p^6 6s^2 4f^10

Classification: Lanthanide

Where it is found: Dysprosium is never found as a free element but is found in most rare earth metals.

Why is this element important: Dysprosium is used in data storage such as on hard disk and hard disk.

Who found it and why was it named dysprosium: Dysprosium was found in 1886 by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran. The name dysprosium means "little hidden one" the element is named this because it is hard to separate it from its brother elements.

Unique Characteristics: Dysprosium and holmium are the most magnetic elements of all the elements.

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Radium

Atomic Number: 88

Atomic Mass: 226

Period: 7

Group: 2

Electron Configuration: 1s^ 2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^2 4d^10 5p^6 6s^2 4f^14 5d^10 6p^6 7s^2

Classification: Alkaline earth metal

Where it is found: Radium can be found in all uranium ore. It is also found in very small amounts in sea water.

Why is this element important: Radium chloride used to be used for treating cancer.

Who found it and why was it named radium: Radium was founded in 1898 by Marie S. Curie. It was named radium after the Latin word "radius" because of the radioactive rays it emits.

Unique Characteristics: In a story called "Sold to Satan" the devils body is made out of radium

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Summary

This chapter starts out talking about how in early years of science only those who were wealthy could afford to be scientists. The book then goes on to talk about how one wealthy chemist who was actually not very good at chemistry became more known for his writings that included elements in artistic ways. Next, the chapter began to talk about how elements are used in arts such as radium being used in the creation of "the worlds fanciest pen." Elements can also be artistic in their names as many elements are taken from Greek and Latin words and have interesting meanings. Then, finally, the chapter talks about an artist, Robert Lowell, who although an amazing artists, was completely mad. Later in his life Lowell was put into an insane asylum and treated with lithium, which cured his madness, yet also ended up taking away his artistic ability. This whole chapter was about how science can be beautiful.

Resources

Chemicool Periodic Table. Chemicool.com. 17 Oct. 2012. Web. 1/15/2016

http://www.chemicool.com

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