Psychologist

wilhelm Wundt

Wilhelm Wundt is famous for founding experimental psychology, establishing the first experimental psychology laboratory, and training several generations of important American and European psychologists. Wundt was born on August 16, 1832, in Neckarau, Germany. He was the youngest of four children born to a Lutheran minister and his wife. As a child, Wundt was very lonely, and spent much of his time as a companion to a retarded boy. Wundt was an indifferent student who daydreamed a lot and earned poor grades. One school he attended suggested that he drop out and become a mailman. He ultimately graduated from high school, but with a poor record. He went to medical school at the University of Tubingen for a year but did not do well. After his father died, Wundt finally realized that he had to change his ways or he would not finish medical school. In an amazing turnaround, he enrolled at the medical school at Heidelberg, studied hard, received his M.D., and in 1855 received the highest scores in the state medical examinations.


1.What is Wilhelm wundt contributions?His contributions were very simple and he is known as the father of experimenal psychology. He established the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany, in 1881.

2.Wilhel Wundt is best known for:

The establishment of the first psychology lab

3.What was Wilhelm Wundt? Wundt was a philosopher and physiologist.

4.Wilhelm Wundt was born? August 16,1832

5. when did he die?August 31, 1920

Wilhelm Wundt 2.0

Edward Titchener

Titchener is credited with introducing Wundt's structuralism to the United States. However, it is important to note that historians recognize that Titchener's theories differed from those of his mentor and many critics suggest that Titchener actually misrepresented many of Wundt's ideas. While the school of thought did not survive his death, he played a major role in establishing psychology as an experimental science.

In addition to his career as a distinguished and much-loved professor, Titchener served as the editor of several important journals including Mind, Studies from the Department of Psychology of Cornell University, and the American Journal of Psychology. He also published several important psychology texts including Outline of Psychology (1897) and his four-volume Experimental Psychology (1901-1905).

1. What are the contributions of Edward Titchener to psychology? Funtionalism and Structuralism

2. Best known for? Experimental Psychology

3. what was edward titchener? British psychologist

4. edward titchener was born? January 11, 1867

5.edward titchener died? August 3, 1927

Edward Bradford Titchener

william james

Suffering from health problems and severe depression, James spent two years in France and Germany. It was during this time that he studied with Hermann von Helmholtz and became increasingly interested in psychology.After graduating from Harvard Medical School in 1869, James continued to sink into depression. After a period of inactivity, the president of Harvard offered James a position as an instructor. While he famously commented that "the first lecture on psychology I ever heard being the first I ever gave," James accepted the job and went on to teach at Harvard for the next 35 years. James also founded one of the first psychology laboratories in the United States.
1.often called? the father of American psychology
2.best known for? Pragmatism and Functionalism
3. what was William james? American philosopher and psychologist who was also trained as a physician.
4.born?January 11, 1842
5.Died?August 26, 1910
William James, The Psychology of Possibility: His life and contributions to the field of psychology

Mary Calkins

Mary Whiton Calkins (1863–1930) was an American philosopher and psychologist born on March 30, 1863 in Hartford, Connecticut. She was the eldest of five children. In 1884, Dr. Calkins graduated from Smith College with a concentration in classics and philosophy. Three years after graduating, Dr. Calkins took up a teaching position in the Greek department at Wellesley College. During her stay at Wellesley, a professor in the Psychology department took notice of her excellent teaching skills and offered her a teaching position with the stipulation that she study psychology for a year beforehand. Though Dr. Calkins accepted the position, there were not many options for women looking for a place to study and graduate with a degree in psychology, but in 1890, she began attending lectures on Psychology taught by Josiah Royce and William James at Harvard Annex. Royce influenced her to take regular classes through Harvard, with males as her peers. The president of Harvard, Charles William Eliot, was opposed to the idea of a woman learning in the same room as a man. With pressure from Royce and James, along with a petition from Dr. Calkin’s father, Eliot conceded and allowed her to study in the regular classes but she was not to be a registered student. During the next year, Dr. Calkins worked alongside Edmund Sanford, of Clark University, to set up the first psychology lab at Wellesley College. The next few years, she continued to excel in the field of psychology. In 1894, Harvard was petitioned to admit Mary as a Ph.D. candidate; they declined. She was then offered a Ph.D. from Radcliffe; however, she declined to accept it due to the lack of relativity it had towards her major studies.
1. What was Mary Calkins? an American philosopher and psychologist
2.Calkins also the first?woman to become president of the American Psychological Association
3.known as?APA’s first woman president
4.Born?March 30, 1863
5.Died?February 26, 1930
Mary Calkins

Maragaret Floy Washburn

Margaret Floy Washburn was an early 20th century psychologist who conducted extensive research on animal behavior and motor development. She was the first woman to earn a PhD in psychology. Margaret Floy Washburn was born in New York City on July 25, 1871. She began college at the age of 16 and soon became a member of the Kappa Alpha Theta Sorority at Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, New York. When she graduated from Vassar in 1891, she wanted to study at Columbia University. At that time, women weren't generally permitted in graduate programs; Washburn was permitted to sit in on classes at Columbia as an observer. She went on to attend the Sage School of Philosophy at Cornell to work with experimental psychologist E.B. Titchener, who founded the theory of psychological structuralism. Washburn was responsible for all experiments and research. She earned her master’s degree in 1893, and one year later, she made history as the first woman to earn a PhD in psychology. As one of the earliest women to enter the field of psychology, Washburn served as evidence that women could effectively contribute to the field. She extensively studied animal behavior and argued that animals' mental states should be studied alongside their behavior. She outlined these arguments in her 1908 book, The Animal Mind. The book was widely popular and heavily researched, outlining numerous experiments in animal psychology, consciousness, and behavior. Unlike some of her contemporaries, who focused primarily on rodents, Washburn examined the behavior of over 100 different animal species.

1. what was Maragaret Floy Washburn?leading American psychologist in the early 20th century

2.best known for?experimental work in animal behavior and motor theory development.

3.went to what two colleges? Vassar College, Cornell University

4.born?July 25, 1871

5.died? October 29, 1939

Margaret Floy Washburn

john B. watson and rosalie rayner

In recent literature various speculations have been entered into concerning the possibility of conditioning various types of emotional response, but direct experimental evidence in support of such a view has been lacking. If the theory advanced by Watson and Rayner to the effect that in infancy the original emotional reaction patterns are few, consisting so far as observed of fear, rage and love, then there must be some simple method by means of which the range of stimuli which can call out these emotions and their compounds is greatly increased. Otherwise, complexity in adult response could not be accounted for. These authors without adequate experimental evidence advanced the view that this range was increased by means of conditioned reflex factors. It was suggested there that the early home life of the child furnishes a laboratory situation for establishing conditioned emotional responses. The present authors have recently put the whole matter to an experimental test.

Experimental work had been done so far on only one child, Albert B. This infant was reared almost from birth in a hospital environment; his mother was a wet nurse in the Harriet Lane Home for Invalid Children. Albert's life was normal: he was healthy from birth and one of the best developed youngsters ever brought to the hospital, weighing twenty-one pounds at nine months of age. He was on the whole stolid and unemotional. His stability was one of the principal reasons for using him as a subject in this test. We felt that we could do him relatively little harm by carrying out such experiments.

1. best known for? the little Albert experiment

2.rosalie rayner college? Vassar college

3.john B. watson college? Muskingum University

4.born? rayner: September 25, 1898 watson: January 9,1878

5.died? rayner: June 18, 1935 Watson: September 25, 1958

Little Albert Experiment (Watson)

B.F. Skinner

At Harvard, B.F. Skinner looked for a more objective and measured way to study behavior. He developed what he called an operant conditioning apparatus to do this, which became better known as the Skinner box. With this device, Skinner could study an animal interacting with its environment. He first studied rats in his experiments, seeing how the rodents discovered and used to a level in the box, which dispensed food at varying intervals.Later, Skinner examined what behavior patterns developed in pigeons using the box. The pigeons pecked at a disc to gain access to food. From these studies, Skinner came to the conclusion that some form of reinforcement was crucial in learning new behaviors.

1. what was B.F. Skinner? psychologist

2.best known for? developing the theory of radical behaviorism

3. B.F. Skinner college? Harvard University, Hamilton college

4.born?March 20, 1904

5.Died?August 18, 1990

B. F. Skinner

Sigmund Freud

After studying medicine at the University of Vienna, Freud worked and gained respect as a physician. Through his work with respected French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot, Freud became fascinated with the emotional disorder known as hysteria. Later, Freud and his friend and mentor Dr. Josef Breuer introduced him to the case study of a patient known as Anna O., who was really a woman named Bertha Pappenheim. Her symptoms included a nervous cough, tactile anesthesia and paralysis. Over the course of her treatment, the woman recalled several traumatic experiences, which Freud and Breuer believed contributed to her illness. The two physicians concluded that there was no organic cause for Anna O's difficulties, but that having her talk about her experiences had a calming effect on the symptoms. Freud and Breuer published the work Studies in Hysteria in 1895. It was Bertha Pappenheim herself who referred to the treatment as "the talking cure."
1.Sigmund Freud College? University of Vienna
2. was the founder of? psychoanalysis
3.was the oldest of how many children? 8
4.Freud's daughter was also a famous? Psychologist
5.died? September 23, 1939
Sigmund Freud Documentary Pt. 1 of 3