Civil War Newspaper
Civil War Battles Mini-Project
Fort Sumter is an island fortification located in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. Constructed in 1829. Fort Sumter is most famous for being the site of the first shots of the Civil War. U.S. Major Robert Anderson occupied the fort in December 1860 following South Carolina’s secession from the Union, initiating a standoff with the state’s militia forces. Confederate General P.G.T. Beauregard bombarded Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861. Anderson and 86 soldiers surrendered the fort on April 13. After the Civil War, Fort Sumter was restored by the U.S. military.
On September 17, 1862, Generals Robert E. Lee and George McClellan faced off near Antietam creek in Sharpsburg, Maryland. It was the first battle of the Civil War to be fought on northern ground. After a string ofUnion defeats, this tactical victory provided Abraham Lincoln the political cover he needed to issue his Emancipation Proclamation.The result of the battle was inconclusive, its known as the bloodiest single day in American history, with more than 22,000 casualties.
From the spring of 1862 until July 1863, during the American Civil War, Union forces attempted to take the Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg, Mississippi, which is on the east bank of the Mississippi River.The capture of Vicksburg proved the military genius of Union General Ulysses S. Grant. Vicksburg was one of the Union’s most successful campaigns of the war. Grant captured Vicksburg with 70,000 troops.
The Battle of Gettysburg, fought from July 1-3 in 1863. On July 1, the advancing Confederates clashed with the Union’s Army at the Potomac. The next day saw even heavier fighting, as the Confederates attacked the Federals on both left and right. On July 3, Lee ordered an attack by fewer than 15,000 troops on the enemy’s center at Cemetery Ridge. The assault, known as Pickett’s Charge managed to pierce the Union lines but eventually failed, at the cost of thousands of rebel casualties, and Lee was forced to withdraw his battered army toward Virginia on July 4.
Sherman's March to Sea
From November 15 until December 21, 1864, Union General William T. Sherman led 60,000 soldiers on an almost 290 mile march from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia. The meaning of this “March to the Sea” was to frighten Georgia’s civilian population into leaving and forgetting the Confederate reasoning. Sherman’s soldiers did not destroy any of the towns in their path, but they stole food and livestock and burned the houses and barns of people who tried to fight back. Sherman explained that they needed to make old and young, rich and poor, feel the hard hand of war.
Union ships moved into place in December 1864 and began a massive bombardment on December 24th. The next day, a small force failed to capture the fort, but the attempt was renewed in January. On January 13, a three-day bombardment began. On the third day, some 9,000 northern infantry commanded by General Alfred Terry hit the beach and attacked Fort Fisher. The Confederates could defend the fort. The damage was heavy on both sides: the Union suffered more than 900 Army casualties and 380 Navy casualties, and the Confederates suffered 500 killed or wounded and over 1,000 captured.
Appomattox Court House
On April 9, 1865, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his 28,000 troops to Union General Ulysses S. Grant in the front parlor of Wilmer McLean’s home in Appomattox Court House in Virginia. This effectively ending the American Civil War. Days earlier, Lee had abandoned the Confederate capital of Richmond and city of Petersburg, hoping to escape with the remnants of his Army of Northern Virginia, meet up with additional Confederate forces in North Carolina and continue fighting. When Union forces cut off his final retreat, Lee was forced to surrender, finally ending four years of bloody sectional conflict.