CALCIUM

HISTORY

Even though calcium is the fifth most abundant element int he earth's crust, it is never found in free nature because of its ability to create compounds by reacting with oxygen and water so easily. Metallic calcium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy through electrolysis of a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide.

PROPERTIES

PHYSICAL: silvery-white metallic, solid, relatively soft metal, capable of being shaped of bent, melting point is 851°C and boiling point is 1482°C

CHEMICAL: used as a deoxidizer in steel, when heated in air or in oxygen it ignites, and its highly reactive with acids

PERIODIC TABLE INFO

ATOMIC MASS: 40.078 amu

ATOMIC NUMBER: 20

NUMBER OF PROTONS: 20

NUMBER OF NEUTRONS: 20

NUMBER OF ELECTRONS: 20

HYPHEN NOTATION: Calcium-40

COMPOUNDS AND USES

USES:

- may be used as a reducing agent in metal extraction

- used in the production of some metals as an allying agent

- calcium carbonate is used to make cement and mortat and also in the glass industry

- calcuim cabide is used to make plastics and to make acetylene gas

- calcium phosphate is used in animal feed and fertilizers


COMPOUNDS:

- Calcuim Hydride (CaH2)

- Calcium Dichloride (CaCl2)

- Calcium Diiodide (CaI2)

ALKALINE EARTH METALS

PROPERTIES:

- shiny

- silvery-white

- readily lose their two outermost electrons to form cations with a 2+ charge

- low densities

- low melting points

- low boiling points

STOICHIOMETRY

SPECIFIC HEAT: 0.63 J/g/C

BOILING POINT: 2,703 degrees fahrenheit or 1,484 degrees celsius

MELTING POINT: 1,584 degrees fahrenheit or 842 degrees celsius

REACTION TYPES

SYNTHESIS: Ca + O + CaO

DECOMPOSTION: 2Ca(NO3)2 >> 2CaO + 4NO2 + O2

SINGLE REPLACEMENT REACTION: Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) >> Ca(OH)2(s) + H2(g)

DOUBLE REPLACEMENT REACTION: CaCO3(s) + HCl(aq) >> CO2(g) +H2O(l) + CaCl2(aq)

CALCIUM CHLORIDE

FORMULA: CaCl2

BOND TYPE: Ionic

% COMPOSITION: Ca: 36.11% Cl: 63.89%

SHAPE: Linear with two total pairs

ACROSTIC POEM

Chalky

Alkaline earth metal

Limestone is crystalline calcium carbonate

Compounds involving calcium are widely used

In milk

Used to remove oxygen, sulfur, and carbon from alloys

Most abundant of the metallic elements in the human body