Computing Hardware

The History

Tim Berners-Lee

During 1989 till 1991 , Tim developed The World Wide Web (WWW) and is known as the Father of the Internet.

He was born in 1955 in London. His parents were both mathematicians, they both worked on the Ferranti Mark I computer. Tim enjoyed electronics from a young age. He graduated Oxford University in 1976. At Oxford he made his first computer using a soldering iron, a old television and different electronic bits.

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The Four Generations of Computers

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The 1st Generation of Computers

The Info

First Generation computers are characterised by the use of vacuum tubes. These vacuum tubes were used for calculation as well as storage and control. Later, magnetic tapes and magnetic drums were implemented as storage media. The first vacuum tube computer, ENIAC, was developed by US army ordinance to calculate ballistic firing tables in WWII. It had about 17 000 vacuum tubes. The machine weighed 30 tons, covered about 1000 square feet of floor, and consumed 130 or 140 kilowatts of electricity.
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The 2nd Generation of Computer

The Info

The second generation computers used transistors. The scientists at Bell laboratories developed transistor in 1947. These scientists include John Barden, William Brattain and William Shockley. The size of the computers was decreased by replacing vacuum tubes with transistors. The examples of second generation computers are IBM 7094 series, IBM 1400 series and CDC 164
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The 3rd Generation of Computer

The Info

The Third generation computers used the integrated circuits (IC). Jack Kilby developed the concept of integrated circuit in 1958. It was an important invention in the computer field. The first IC was invented and used in 1961. The size of an IC is about ¼ square inch. A single IC chip may contain thousands of transistors. The computer became smaller in size, faster, more reliable and less expensive.
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The 4th Generation of Computer

The Info

The fourth generation computers started with the invention of Microprocessor. The Microprocessor contains thousands of ICs. Ted Hoff produced the first microprocessor in 1971 for Intel. It was known as Intel 4004. The technology of integrated circuits improved rapidly. The LSI (Large Scale Integration) circuit and VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) circuit was designed. It greatly reduced the size of computer. The size of modern Microprocessors is usually one square inch. It can contain millions of electronic circuits. The examples of fourth generation computers are Apple Macintosh & IBM PC

Alan Turing

Alan Mathison Turing, 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was a British pioneering computer scientist, mathematician, logician,cryptanalyst, philosopher, mathematical biologist, and marathon and ultra distance runner. He was highly influential in the development of computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of ''algorithm" and ''computation" with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general purpose computer. Turing is widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.
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The future of computing - 5th Generation of Computer

The Info

Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. Quantum computing and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come.

Inputs And Outputs

Inputs of a computing device

- Keyboard

- Mouse

- Touch Screen

- Game Controller

- TV Controller

Outputs of a computing device

- Monitor

- Printer

- Photo Copier

- Speakers

Hardware-Computer Components

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A drive

The Info

A drive is a medium that is capable of storing and reading information that is not easily removed like a disk.

A driver is software that allows your computer to communicate with hardware or devices. Without drivers, the hardware you connect to your computer—for example, a video card or a webcam—will not work properly.

A monitor

The Info


  1. A computer monitor is an electronic device that shows pictures. Monitors often look similar to televisions. The main difference between a monitor and a television is that a monitor does not have a television tuner to change channels. Monitors often have higher display resolution than televisions.

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CPU's

The Info

  1. The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the part of a computer system that is commonly referred to as the "brains" of a computer. The CPU is also known as the processor or microprocessor. The CPU is responsible for executing a sequence of stored instructions called a program.

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RAM/ROM

The Info

When you power off your computer the data stored in RAM is deleted.ROM is a type of non- volatile memory. Data in ROM is permanently written and is not erased when you power off your computer. There are different types of RAM, including DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) and SRAM (Static Random Access Memory).
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Motherboards

The Info

  1. A motherboard (sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board, planar board or logic board, or colloquially, a mobo) is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in computers and other expandable systems.

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Touch Screens

The Info

A touch screen is a computer display screen that is also an input device. The screens are sensitive to pressure; a user interacts with the computer by touching pictures or words on the screen
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The Raspberry Pi

More Info

The Raspberry Pi is a low cost, credit-card sized computer that plugs into a computer monitor or TV, and uses a standard keyboard and mouse. It is a capable little device that enables people of all ages to explore computing, and to learn how to program in languages like Scratch and Python.
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