The African National Congress

BY: Gopika Dileep

The ANC is formed - 1912

  • In 1911 when a man called upon all Africans to forget their differences.
  • His name was Pixley ka Isaka Seme.

"We are one people. these divisions, these jealousies, are the cause of all our Conflicts today."

  • On January 8th 1912, chiefs, representatives of people`s and church organisations, and other prominent individuals gathered in Bloemfontein and formed the African National Congress (ANC).
  • The ANC declared its aim to bring all Africans together as one people to defend their rights and freedoms.

During the Formation of the ANC

The ANC was formed at a time when South Africa was changing very fast...

  • Diamonds and gold had been discovered in 1867 and 1886.
  • Large numbers of people to worked in the mines.
  • Laws and taxes were designed to force people to leave their land.
  • The most severe law was the 1913 land Act, which prevented africans from buying, renting or using land, except in the reserves.

Racial Inequalities

  • The first forms of segregation in South Africa began soon after the creation of the ANC.
  • The promise for equality between all Africans did not hold very long.
  • During the 1920s government policies became harsher and more racist.
  • A color-bar was established to stop blacks from holding semi-skilled jobs in some industries. It also meant that black workers were paid lower wages for unskilled work.

The New NAC

  • The ANC was emerged with new life in the 1940s,
  • The careful organisation it was in the 1930s it became the mass movement it was in the 1950s.
  • Harsh racism Increased attacks on the rights of black people.

ANC Youth League

  • In 1944 the ANC Youth League was formed.
  • The leaders of the Youth League ­ Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Oliver Tambo and some others.
  • The leaders based their ideas on African nationalism.
  • The Youth League aimed to involve the masses of people in militant struggles.They believed Africans would be freed only by their own efforts.

A Mass Movement is Born

  • The Defiance Campaign was the beginning of a mass movement of resistance to apartheid.
  • Apartheid aimed to separate the different race groups through many different acts set up by their white government.

The Armed Struggle Begins

  • The ANC took up arms against the South African Government in 1961.
  • The time for peaceful protest had ended.
  • Some ANC leaders ­ among them Oliver Tambo and Joe Slovo avoided arrest and left the country.
  • Other ANC leaders like Nelson Mandela were arrested (August 5, 1962)

The ANC Banded and Unbanned

  • Because of the armed attacks the South African government took drastic measures to make sure the ANC was destroyed.
  • The people proclaimed the ANC unbanned, so the mass movement took to the city streets defiantly with the ANC flags and banners.
  • In February 1990, the regime was forced to unban the ANC and other organizations.

The New Power

  • At the 1991 National Conference of the ANC Nelson Mandela was elected President.
  • The ANC won the first election for power with a vast majority. (62.6% of the more than 22 million votes were in favour of the ANC.)
  • On the 10th of May 1994 Nelson Mandela was inaugurated as the President of South Africa.
  • The ANC became the new government power ever since.

Connection to Kaffir Boy

  • Towards the end of the book the apartheid is beginning to fall apart and the ANC is coming to power.
  • The main character in the book Johanes sides with the ANC because It is fighting for equality for the non white from the all white government.


  • "A Brief History of the African National Congress." A Brief History of the African National Congress. AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS: SOUTH AFRICA'S NATIONAL LIBERATION MOVEMENT, n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2015. <>.