Civil Rights Movement
From Sit-ins to Boycotts...
An Intro Into the Past
Topic One : Brown VS. The Board of Education
Now, not only were the Browns suing Topeka, but all African-Americans wanted the separate in the "Separate but Equal" removed, and in the scenario, it was considered- and later granted- unconstitutional.
After the lawsuit, the Brown's situation sparked education reform throughout all of the states and formed the legal means of challenging segregation in all areas of society.
Topic Two : Montgomery Bus Boycotts
Because of the outburst and numbers of partakers, bus segregation was ruled unconstitutional, and any laws were dropped. The boycott was ended on December 20th, 1956. Martin Luther King stated during this event that "It was more honorable to walk in dignity than ride in humiliation."
Topic Three : "Little Rock Nine"
Despite the fact that a dispute of segregation laws within public schools was the cause, Little Rock High Schools were shut down for a year staring in 1958. This was due to a public voting on integration in schools.
The 8 of 9 Little Rock students that had yet to graduate had to transfer to new schools, but it led them to major federal roles for presidents and armies of the States.
Topic Four : Greensboro Sit-Ins
Like many other movements, the sit-ins were inspired by non-violent protests prior to itself. But this time, a specific event in which 14 year-old Emmett Till was brutally murdered, was the biggest spark for the four students.
In response to their arrests, the 5th of February brought on 300 other college students joining in the leader's efforts by "paralyzing" local businesses. Within a month, however, the small event spread through 55 cities that were found in 13 different states. By the summer of 1960, segregated dining facilities gave in and joined in on the integration movement.
Topic Five : Freedom Rides
The activists's modeled their project after CORE's 1947 Journey of Reconciliation- which was very similar to segregation acts in the 60's.
As a result of the act, two buses were attacked by furious mobs, and it brought forth national attention. Soon after, the Interstate Commerce Commission (whilst under the Kennedy administration), prohibited segregation in interstate transit terminals.
Topic Six : The March on Washington D.C.
During the march, more than 200,000 Americans gathered for a political rally known as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. It cumulated in MLK Jr's "I Have a Dream" speech, which spoke for racial equality. It was planned and established once before, and it was meant for dramatization of black citizen's rights in America. And although it didn't directly bring an end to a specific segregational right, it represented hope, belief, and faith for equality.
Topic Seven : The Civil Rights Act of 1964 [PASSED]
Although the idea and bill was originally brought around by Kennedy, Johnson was the one to bring it to it's beginning.
Throughout the years, the bill's opened up to opportunities and rights for disabled, elderly, and female Americans, and it has brought on the chance for the Voting Rights Act of 1965 to be signed and official.
Topic Eight : Voting Rights Act of 1965 [PASSED]
President Lyndon B. Johnson was the leader for this signing, yet it still caused southern states to ignore the votes of black citizens. On the other hand, the law gave these citizens a chance to challenge these restrictions.
The increase in black voting turnouts increased from 6% in '64 to 59% by '69.
Final Topic : Selma to Montgomery March
Previous attempts of this movement involved severe injuries from unlawful violence and were called off. But this one, which was enforced by Johnson and federal troops, was a walk of 2,000 citizens towards Alabama's capital.
Once there, about 50k black and white supporters met them, and they heard addresses on the topic.
As a result of this act, the Voting Rights Act was passed and enforced by the president and house itself.