Civil Rights Movement

From Sit-ins to Boycotts...

An Intro Into the Past

During the twentieth century, many outbreaks regarding segregation took hold. However, most of the conflicts were resolved through Nonviolent Protests. Some of the most popular ones are listed and described below. So, without further ado, I present to you, "The 9 Most Important Civil Rights Movements."

Topic One : Brown VS. The Board of Education

The first topic of discussion for this list is the event that had occurred on May 17th, 1954 in Topeka, Kansas. It was the Brown Vs. The Board of Education, where an African-American family- the Browns- sued the Topeka school system grounds that their daughter's school was not equal to all-white schools.

Now, not only were the Browns suing Topeka, but all African-Americans wanted the separate in the "Separate but Equal" removed, and in the scenario, it was considered- and later granted- unconstitutional.

After the lawsuit, the Brown's situation sparked education reform throughout all of the states and formed the legal means of challenging segregation in all areas of society.

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Topic Two : Montgomery Bus Boycotts

The Montgomery Bus Boycotts took place on December 5th of 1955, and they lasted for an estimated 13 months. Of course, the event blossomed from Montgomery, which is located in Alabama. It occurred after the arrest of Rosa Parks and her courageous actions sparked a plan of boycotting buses for over a year. 90% of black citizens participated in this event.

Because of the outburst and numbers of partakers, bus segregation was ruled unconstitutional, and any laws were dropped. The boycott was ended on December 20th, 1956. Martin Luther King stated during this event that "It was more honorable to walk in dignity than ride in humiliation."

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Topic Three : "Little Rock Nine"

The Central High- or Little Rock Nine- event took place in Little Rock, Arkansas. On September 4th, 1957, nine black students volunteered to enroll into an all-white high school. Governor Orval Faubus of the state called on national guards to prevent their entry. In return, President Eisenhower sent in federal troops to escort them into the school.

Despite the fact that a dispute of segregation laws within public schools was the cause, Little Rock High Schools were shut down for a year staring in 1958. This was due to a public voting on integration in schools.

The 8 of 9 Little Rock students that had yet to graduate had to transfer to new schools, but it led them to major federal roles for presidents and armies of the States.

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Topic Four : Greensboro Sit-Ins

The Greensboro Sit-ins was launched as an act in February of 1960 by four college students in Greensboro, NC. The students, whom were inspired by previous racial movements, teamed up and invaded Woolsworth's segregated lunch counters. Their actions caused them all arrests but an almost immediate outburst.

Like many other movements, the sit-ins were inspired by non-violent protests prior to itself. But this time, a specific event in which 14 year-old Emmett Till was brutally murdered, was the biggest spark for the four students.

In response to their arrests, the 5th of February brought on 300 other college students joining in the leader's efforts by "paralyzing" local businesses. Within a month, however, the small event spread through 55 cities that were found in 13 different states. By the summer of 1960, segregated dining facilities gave in and joined in on the integration movement.

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Topic Five : Freedom Rides

Freedom Rides were a thing that began on May 4th in 1961 throughout all of the southern states- especially Alabama. It happened when 13 African-American and white civil rights activists launched bus trips to protests segregation in interstate terminals.

The activists's modeled their project after CORE's 1947 Journey of Reconciliation- which was very similar to segregation acts in the 60's.

As a result of the act, two buses were attacked by furious mobs, and it brought forth national attention. Soon after, the Interstate Commerce Commission (whilst under the Kennedy administration), prohibited segregation in interstate transit terminals.

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Topic Six : The March on Washington D.C.

The speech "I Have A Dream" is probably the most related to segregational acts in the 1900's, and it takes place on August 28th, 1963 in D.C.

During the march, more than 200,000 Americans gathered for a political rally known as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. It cumulated in MLK Jr's "I Have a Dream" speech, which spoke for racial equality. It was planned and established once before, and it was meant for dramatization of black citizen's rights in America. And although it didn't directly bring an end to a specific segregational right, it represented hope, belief, and faith for equality.

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Topic Seven : The Civil Rights Act of 1964 [PASSED]

On July 2nd, 1964 in D.C., the Civil Rights Act was signed and passed to end black segregation. It was meant to end any public discrimination towards African-Americans; it also brought an end to all protests on the topic.

Although the idea and bill was originally brought around by Kennedy, Johnson was the one to bring it to it's beginning.

Throughout the years, the bill's opened up to opportunities and rights for disabled, elderly, and female Americans, and it has brought on the chance for the Voting Rights Act of 1965 to be signed and official.

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Topic Eight : Voting Rights Act of 1965 [PASSED]

Considered the farthest-reaching piece in civil rights history, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed and followed the Civil Rights Act for African-Americans and their rights to vote. It's signing took place on the 6th of August in 1965 within the U.S. Senate.

President Lyndon B. Johnson was the leader for this signing, yet it still caused southern states to ignore the votes of black citizens. On the other hand, the law gave these citizens a chance to challenge these restrictions.

The increase in black voting turnouts increased from 6% in '64 to 59% by '69.

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Final Topic : Selma to Montgomery March

In following the Civil Rights Act, many places still refused to allow black freedoms. And on March 21st of 1965 all the way to the 25th, a march from Selma to Montgomery took place, led by MLK Jr. himself.

Previous attempts of this movement involved severe injuries from unlawful violence and were called off. But this one, which was enforced by Johnson and federal troops, was a walk of 2,000 citizens towards Alabama's capital.

Once there, about 50k black and white supporters met them, and they heard addresses on the topic.

As a result of this act, the Voting Rights Act was passed and enforced by the president and house itself.

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