Body System Diseases

By: Elizabeth, Naya, Katie, Katrina, and Jun

Endocrine System Diseases by: Katrina


Osteoporosis, which occurs, is a condition in which bones become fragile and more likely to break. This can be the result of many factors including a decrease in the hormone estrogen occurring during menopause in women, or a decrease in testosterone occurring in men as they age. Because osteoporosis often has no obvious symptoms, it is often left undiagnosed until the person affected suffers a broken or fractured bone during a minor fall.

Osteoporosis can occur if your endocrine glands are not functioning properly.

  • Thyroid problems. Too much thyroid hormone can cause bone loss. This can occur if your thyroid is overactive or if you take too much thyroid hormone medication to treat an under-active thyroid.
  • Other glands. Osteoporosis has also been associated with overactive parathyroid and adrenal glands.
Where in the body: Fractures most commonly occur in the hip, wrist or spine.


  • Intake more Calcium
  • Intake more Vitamin D
  • Prevention of Falling
  • Bone friendly medicine
  • Weight bearing exercise


Hypoglycemia is the clinical term for low levels of blood glucose. Glucose is the main source of energy for the cells of the human body. As such, blood glucose is usually very well­regulated by the endocrine system. Hypoglycemia isnt a disease itself, but is a health problem that should be treated with care.


Hypoglycemia signs and symptoms:

  • Heart palpitations
  • Shakiness
  • Anxiety
  • Sweating
  • Hunger
  • Tingling sensation around the mouth

Untreated hypoglycemia can lead to:

  • Seizure
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Death, primarily in those with diabetes

Prevention: If you have diabetes, carefully follow the management plan you and your doctor have created. If you don't have diabetes but have recurring hypoglycemia, eating frequent small meals throughout the day will help prevent your blood sugar levels from getting too low. Work with your doctor to identity and treat the underlying cause of hypoglycemia.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Also referred to as PCOS, is one of the more common endocrine system diseases. PCOS is a condition associated with symptoms of infrequent or irregular menstruation, male hormone excess symptoms like hirsutism (increased and unwanted hair growth) and acne and difficulty to conceive. Patients with PCOS can also have multiple egg­containing cysts on the ovaries. They are higher risk for metabolic complications like diabetes and hypertension.


  • Infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods
  • excess hair growth
  • acne
  • obesity
  • difficulty becoming pregnant
  • unexplained weight gain

Cause: Doctors don't know the cause of polycystic ovary syndrome. Heredity and excess insulin are factors included in the disease.


Specialist: ­ An endocrinologist is a specially trained doctor. Endocrinologists diagnose diseases that affect your glands. They know how to treat conditions that are often complex and involve many systems within your body.

College degree requirements: M.D. or D.O.

Colleges: University of California, Berkeley University of District of Columbia in Washington, DC University of Wisconsin in Madison, WI

Activities they do: Endocrinologists take patient histories, order diagnostic tests, administer and monitor treatment plans and medications designed to address problems caused in the endocrine system. Their focus is speeding up the development of new prevention, diagnostic and treatment tools.­activities­endocrinologist.html#ixzz2Kq1lVy2I

Skills: Knowledge of human anatomy and endocrine system, attention to detail, empathy I think that it is important to pay attention to detail.

Traits: To be able to pay attention to detail. Know the difference between empathy and sympathy. Being able to manage the patients with care.

Average annual pay: $196,194

Endocrinologists work with the patients dentist, diabetics, and physicians to inform them on the risks of slow healing after a surgery.

Watch what it's like for this endocrineologist:

Dr. James Findling - endocrinology

Cardiovascular Diseases by: Katrina


Hardening of the arteries, also called atherosclerosis, is a common disorder. It occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls of arteries and form hard structures called plaques.

Risk Factors

  • Diabetes

  • Family history of hardening of the arteries

  • High blood pressure

  • Smoking

Symptoms: chest pain, shortness of breath

Coronary Heart Disease

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart. CHD is also called coronary artery disease.


  • Chest Pain
  • Shortness of Breath
  • Heart Attacks

Risk Factors:

  • Age
  • Gender
  • high blood pressure
  • high cholesterol
  • diabetes
  • obesity
  • Stress

Coronary Artery Disease (Animated Pocket Dictionary: Cardiology)

Cardiac Dysrhythmia

The term "arrhythmia" refers to any change from the normal sequence of electrical impulses. The electrical impulses may happen too fast, too slowly, or erratically – causing the heart to beat too fast, too slowly, or erratically. When the heart doesn't beat properly, it can't pump blood effectively. When the heart doesn't pump blood effectively, the lungs, brain and all other organs can't work properly and may shut down or be damaged.


  • A fluttering in your chest
  • A racing heartbeat (tachycardia)
  • A slow heartbeat (bradycardia)
  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Lightheadedness
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting

Risk Factors:

  • Congenital heart disease
  • Diabetes
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Obesity
  • Thyroid problems
  • Alcohol abuse

Diagnosis: Electrocardiogram (ECG), Cardiac computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)


A cardiologist is a profession that specializes in Cardiovascular Diseases. They meet with patients and help prevent, diagnose, and treat heart and blood vessel issues.

Skills: Chemistry, Mathematics, engineering, psychology

Every day activities:

  • Perform minor surgery
  • Examine Patients
  • Record Keeping

Local Colleges:

  • Baylor University
  • University of Texas Southwestern medical school

Pay: $200,000 annual wage

Careers that go hand in hand with Cardiologist:

  • Neurologist ( If CAD leads to Stroke)
  • Nurse Educator
  • Physical Therapist
  • Dietitian

Eduction Requirements

Cardiology Information : What Kind of Education Does a Cardiologist Need?

Diseases of the Nervous System by: Elizabeth


Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord known as the meninges. Its caused by infection from viruses or bacteria. It can be life threatening from all the inflammation of the brain and spinal cord, so it is a medical emergency and patients need to be hospitalized.


  • headache
  • neck stiffness
  • fever
  • confusion
  • vomiting
  • not able to handle bright lights (photophobia)
  • not able to handle loud noises (phonophobia)
  • some rare occasions a rash


An injection into the spinal cord to extract cerebrospinal fluid, after they send it to the lab they out patients on certain antibotics to kill the virus. Some serious cases can result in deafness, epilepsy, hydrocephalus and cognitive deficits, especially if not treated quickly.

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis or MS is a disease of the central nervous system (CNA). This is when the protective covering called "myelin" that protects the nerve or (axons) becomes damaged. In 1951 cortisone (asteriod) was first used to treat MS.


  • fatigue
  • numbness
  • visual disturbances
  • bladder problems
  • mobility issues

Areas of inflammation and damage in the brain are known as "lesions" or "plaques." MS results in messages from the brain and spinal cord going to parts of the body being delayed and having trouble reaching their destination causing symptoms of MS.

What is Multiple Sclerosis

Tourette Syndrom

Tourette is an inherited neuropsychiatric disorder with on set in childhood. It causes multiple physical motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic. Tourettes is a spectrum of tic disorders and can vary in severity.

  • .4% and 3.8% of children ages 5-18 have tourettes

There is no effective treatment for this syndrom either. The most common type of this is constant eye blinking, clearing throat, sniffing, or facial movements. Although it can seem like it sometimes, Tourettes doesn't effect intelligence or time of death.

ADHD and OCD can be present in patients with Tourettes.

  • Coprolalia- characteristic of Tourettes saying loud and vulgar remarks without knowledge of it.

Teenage Tourette's Camp

Specialists with these diseases

The correct specialists to help with these diseases would be Neurologist. They have to have four years of medical school, one year internship, and three years of specialized training. Locally, you could attend UT Southwestern to earn the four years of medical school required. Three activities that this specialists does that interests me is working with brain activity, spinal cord issues, and working with patient's speech. Three skills you need, is being able to look at nerves and tell weather theirs a problem, finding the right treatment for each parent, and being able to perform a CAT scan. I believe the most important skill is being able to look at nerves and be able to find the issue and treatment to help the patient. I am patient, sensitive, and a hard worker. These traits would help me become a Neurologist. The average annual pay for these specialists is about $216,140 (on average.) The jobs that are similar to a Neurologist are Neurocritical care, Neuro-ophthalmology, and Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. This career is slowly growing in the U.S. The only problem is the expense of the education most people can't afford. Personally I would not want to pursue this job because I am not interested with working with nerves.

Diseases of the Lymphatic System by: Elizabeth


Lymphangitis is the inflammation of the lymphatics. This is caused by an infection by a microbe or some chemical irratant. This happens when infection or inflammation occurs somewhere else and the microbe or the irritant is transported along with lymph fluid through the lymphatics. THe infection affects the lymph vessel walls, and makes it very inflamed.


  • Bacteria called Streptococci, Staphylococci and even Neisseria.


  • Red streaks or lines on the skin
  • inflamed lymph nodes
  • fever
  • pain
  • swelling
  • tenderness


Antibiotics are usaully used the fight off the disease. If not treated the infection could reach the blood stream creating septicemia, a life threatening condition. If the fluid is captured it can be drained with incision.

Lymphatic Filariasis

This is one of the most well known diseases of the lymphatic system. Why? Because of the severe disfigurement of affected body parts that it causes. It is entered the body by mosquito carriers. They leave larvae that enters the bloodstream. The larvae soon matures to an adult worm. The adult worms continue to reproduce and spread. The nematodes obstruct the lymphatic vessels. This leads to enlargement of body parts such as legs and scrotum.


  • nematodes like Wuchereria bancrofti
  • Brugia malayi
  • Brugia timori
  • Mosquito Bites


  • Inflammation of the skin
  • inflammation of the lymphnodes
  • weak immune system
  • thickening of tissues
  • massive swelling of organs


Large doses of oral Albendazole along with Ivermectin and Diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC)s to kill the mature nematodes and larvae.


A condition in which the spleen becomes enlarged, tender and painful. It can be caused by a large number of different reasons. Infections to cancer.


  • tiredness
  • feeling satiated even after eating a small amount of food
  • increased susceptibility to infections. (weak immune system)


  • Bacterial, viral and parasitic infections
  • pathological conditions of the liver
  • hematological diseases
  • autoimmune disorders
  • other types of cancers


  • radiation therapy
  • surgical removal of the spleen

Type of Specialist for these diseases

The type of specialist that would help people with diseases of the lymphatic system are immunologists. The education needed to be an immunologists is four years in medical school, residency, and internship. A college you could attend locally to become this type of doctor would be UT Southwestern here in Dallas Texas. Three activities that interest me they study allergies, treat completely different cases each day, and they study new treatments each day. Three skills you would need to succeed in this job is being persistent, not giving up when studying for a cure or treatment, being able to analyze different allergies, and being able to deal with a lot of people in deep pain. The most important skill is defiantly being able to be persistent to help all the different patients. Three traits that I have that would help in this job is hardworking, persistent, and patient/ being able to stay calm in panic. The average pay is $217,590 on average. Three careers similar to an immunologist is an immunology technician, immunology animal studies, and scientific researcher. Immunology is slowly growing in the U.S. but many people can't afford the education. I would want to be an immunologist because I find it interesting that they find people's allergies and find new treatments each day.

Respiratory System Diseases by Elizabeth


Asthma is is a chronic, inflammatory lung disease that causes reoccuring breathing problems. These breathing problems causes obstruction, inflammation, and hyper-responsiveness. Asthma sometimes resemble other respiratory problems such as emphysema, bronchitis, and lower respiratory infections.


  • chronic cough
  • coughing or wheezing with exercise
  • sometimes recurrent bronchitis

Causes- Doctors haven't been able to find a main cause to asthma but they have concluded that the inflammation of the airway creating Asthma leads to the following:

  • mucus production
  • contraction of airway muscles
  • swelling in the airways

Sometimes Asthma can lead to a weaker immune system. Asthma attacks are emergencies. Most people with Asthma have them either very often or rarely just depending on the person. The people most susceptible to asthma attacks are:

  • children, by the age of 5
  • adults in their 30's
  • adults older than 65
  • people living in urban communities

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

The most common lung disease. It makes breathing difficult, and there is two main types of COPD. However, some people can have a combination of the two.

  • Chronic bronchitis, which involves a long-term cough with mucus

  • Emphysema, which involves destruction of the lungs over time


  • smoking (leading cause)
  • people lacking a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin
  • exposure to certain gases
  • exposure to pollution or second hand smoke
  • frequent use of cooking fire without ventilation

  • Cough, with or without mucus

  • Fatigue

  • Many respiratory infections

  • Shortness of breath (dyspnea) that gets worse with mild activity

  • Trouble catching one's breath

  • Wheezing

Treatment- there is no known cure for COPD, but doctors have found many ways to help relieve people of some of their symptoms these are some things:

  • stop smoking
  • inhalers
  • anti-infalmmatory medicine
  • oxygen therapy

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer starts in the lining of the bronchi, bronchioles, or alveoli. It deveolps over several years inside the lungs. According to there are differnet types of lung cancer. They are listed below.

  • Non-small cell lung cancer. This type is much more common than small cell lung cancer, accounting for about 85 to 90 percent of lung cancers. The three main kinds of non-small cell lung cancer are named for the type of cells in the tumor:

    • Squamous cell carcinoma (also called epidermoid carcinoma). It often begins in the bronchi near the middle of the lungs.

    • Adenocarcinoma. This type usually begins along the outer edges of the lungs. It is the most common type of lung cancer in people who have never smoked.

    • Large cell carcinomas. These are a group of cancers with large, abnormal-looking cells. These tumors may begin anywhere in the lungs and tend to grow quickly.

  • Small cell lung cancer. This type is sometimes called oat cell cancer because the cancer cells may look like oats when viewed under a microscope, grows rapidly and quickly spreads to other organs. There are two stages of small cell lung cancer:
  • Limited. In this stage, cancer is generally found in only one lung. There may also be cancer in nearby lymph nodes on the same side of the chest.
  • Extensive. In this stage, cancer has spread beyond the primary tumor in the lung into other parts of the body.


    • Constant chest pain

    • Shortness of breath

    • Wheezing

    • Recurring lung infections, such as pneumonia or bronchitis

    • Bloody or rust-colored sputum

    • Hoarseness

    • A tumor that presses on large blood vessels near the lung can cause swelling of the neck and face

    • A tumor that presses on certain nerves near the lung can cause pain and weakness in the shoulder, arm, or hand

    • Fever for unknown reason

Specialists for the Respiratory System

A Pulmonologist is the type of specialist best fit for the respiratory system. The education need to be a Pulmonologist is four years of college, four years of medical school, internship and residency, two years of fellowship and then licensing. Locally, you could attend is Richland College in Dallas, TX. Three activities these specialists do daily is treat numerous lung diseases, diagnose patients just from running tests and evaluating them, and finding new and improved treatments. Three skills you need to be successful in this job is hard working, problem solving skills, and patience. The most important skill is being a problem solver. I am a very patient, and problem solver and im persistant so I wouldn't give up on a patient. The average salary for this job is $137,700 annual. I would personally not want to pursue this job because Im not very interested in the respiratory system.

Specialists for Digestive System: Katie Pitts


A Gastroenterologist is a physician that specializes in diseases that are part of the digestive system which includes the esophagus, stomach, and intestines.

They have to complete a four year college degree, followed by four years of medical school. Then they do a three year residency in internal medicine.

To be a Gastroenterologist the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School in Dallas is a local college to attend. Also a few hours away from Dallas is the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston, and Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas.

Three activities that are interesting within this career are doing liver biopsies, endoscopic examinations of esophagus, stomach, and bowels, and dealing with treatment, diagnosis, and study of conditions that affect the Digestive Tract.

Skills need for this career include the ability to work long hours, multitasking skills, and communication skills.

I believe all the skills are important but patience is necessary for going to school for a while and working with patients.

Three traits that I have for this career is multitasking, proficiency, and patience.

The average salary for a Gastroenterologist is 329,912$ a year.

A Gastroenterologist is the only career that specializes in the digestive system. But because of that is the reason why the medical field will always need them, and is a career growing in the U.S.

Based on all the facts and information discovered about Gastroenterologist's, it seems like an interesting career to take part of and pursue.

Gastroesophagel Reflux Disease


GERD is the weakness of a valve between the esophagus and stomach which allows stomach acid to come back up into the esophagus and irritate and inflame the lining. The chest pains feel like Angina. Current treatments are over the counter treatments to help control heart burn and control acid. If it doesn't work in a few weeks your doctor might reccomend treatments including prescribed medication and surgery 20% of people in the U.S. feel painful and burning symptoms occasionally.

The Center for the Future of Surgery at UC San Diego Medical Center is making a multicenter clinical trial to test how safe and effective the new incisionless GERD treatment is.
“Because GERD is caused by an anatomical abnormality, medication is a temporary aid – only surgery can truly correct the problem. The goal of this clinical trial is to evaluate a scarless technique that eliminates the defect and restores the esophagus to normal function.” the common results are a burning pain and ultimately damaging the digestive tract.
During a 45-minute procedure, an endoscope is placed in the patient’s mouth, down the throat, and into the upper stomach. Working an advanced computerized device from the outside of the patient, Horgan aligns and staples three small titanium staples to attach a small section of the stomach to the upper esophagus. The valve that’s now re-constructed prevents stomach acids from flowing back up.

Celiac Disease

Celiac Disease is an immune disease in which people can’t eat gluten because it would cause damage to their small intestines. Gluten is a protein that can be found in wheat, rye, and barley. Also it could also be found in vitamins, nutrient supplements, lip balms, and some medicines. When people with this disease eat gluten, their immune system reacts to the gluten by attacking the lining of the small intestine. The immune system’s reaction to gluten damages small growths called villi. Damaging villi is harmful because the body can’t get all the nutrients it needs. The disease is hereditary and 2 million Americans mights have the disease but don’t know it. The only treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet. Avoiding gluten can eventually lead to healing the small intestine. Researchers are studying new options for diagnosing celiac disease, including capsule endoscopy, which patients swallow a capsule containing a tiny video camera that records images of the small intestine.
Various drug treatments for celiac disease are being studied. Also, researchers are studying a combination of enzymes that could change gluten in ways that prevent it from causing an immune reaction before it enters the small intestine.
Scientists are trying to develop educational materials for standardized medical training to raise awareness among healthcare providers. They hope to increase an understanding and awareness that will lead to treatment and diagnosis of Celiac disease earlier.

Alagille Syndrome

-Alagille Syndrome is a disorder that is inherited, which causes a person to have a fewer than normal Bile ducts in the liver ( they are tubes that carry bile from the liver cells to the gallbladder and drain into the small intestine).

-Bile has two main functions: carrying toxins and waste products out of the body and helping digestion of fats and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. The fewer number of bile ducts causes bile to build up in the liver, which leads to liver damage.

-Eventually the liver may stop working, and the person would need a liver transplant. Treatment for Alagille syndrome targets increasing the flow of bile from the liver, which promotes growth and development, and making the person as comfortable as possible.

-Ursodiol is the only drug that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves of to increase bile flow. Other treatments address specific symptoms of the disease.

- The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases' Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition supports clinical and basic research into liver diseases, including Alagille syndrome. Numerous studies are going to

  • explain ways Alagille syndrome presents in people
  • focus on the interaction between genes, identifying new genes that might cause Alagille syndrome
  • translate findings about bile formation and secretion into treatments to reverse or cure Alagille syndrome
  • Focus on the exact cause of pruritus for the future to form a treatment
  • develop a gene therapy for liver disease in newborns that could be used to treat Alagille syndrome

Skeletal System

1.Radiologists examine the skeletal system with X-rays, CT scans, and MRI and nuclear medicine scans.
2. Just starting in a radiology career, a radiology bachelor's degree is not necessary. Most who begin in the profession first earn an associates degree, certificate, or diploma. Later in their career they may complete a bachelors degree in radiology. A bachelors degree can raise salaries by a lot, and create better possibilities within the career.
3. Remington College in Fort Worth, Argosy University in Dallas, and Pima Medical Institute in Houston
4. Three things that interest me are the different options Radiology has to offer. Three activities that interest me that Radiologic Technologist do is working with the equipment, getting to work with patients, and taking X-Rays.
5. Three skills necessary for this career are communicating calmly, compassionately, and professionally with all different types of patients
6. The most important skill is precision because getting a good X-Ray of people is your job, and in order to do that, precision is important.
7. Three traits that would make me good for the career are being professional, being patient, and calm.
8. The average annual pay for this career is 41,612 to 81,136$
9. Three careers that are similar to a Radio Technologist are Ultrasound Technicians, X-Ray Technicians, and MRI Technicians. The more experience or degrees you have to be a Radio Technologist the better employment options are. But the career is still growing in the U.S. and will be easy to find a job.
10. I would consider this career but I might want to focus more on Emergency Care.


-Arthritis is a disease an inflammatory condition which affect the joints, like knees, or part of the spinal column. Arthritis involves the breakdown of cartilage and without the normal amount of cartilage, the bones rub together, which causes pain,swelling,and stiffness.

-Common symptoms of this condition include joint pain, swelling and stiffness joined by reduced ability to move your joints. Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are the most common types of this disease.
-Treatments are specialized exercise workouts, or physical therapy. Also getting more sleep helps symptoms, and eating a healthy diet. Weight loss often relieves symptoms. -Over the counter medicines can be taken to reduce pain, along with change in lifestyle. If needed doctors could prescribe medications like Humira, Enbrel, and Remicade.

-Steroids could also be injected into painful joints to ease pain, or taken orally. Occasionally if the Arthritis worsens or doesn’t get better after lifestyle change and medicines then surgery to rebuild the joint can be done or joint replacement,


-Osteoporosis (thinning of bones), is a condition that can result in extreme amounts of pain with fractures.

-Risk factors for osteoporosis include aging, being female, low body weight, low sex hormones which can happen during menopause, smoking, and some medications.

-No symptoms occur in this disease until a bone gets fractured. Prevention and treatment of osteoporosis include calcium and vitamin D, regular exercise, and osteoporosis medications, if needed.


-Scoliosis is when the spine curves sideways and occurs most often during a growth spurt just before puberty. While scoliosis can be caused by conditions such as cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy, the cause of most scoliosis is unknown.

-Often the cases of scoliosis are mild, but some children develop spine deformities that keep getting more severe as they grow. Severe scoliosis can be disabling.

-An extreme severe spinal curve can reduce the amount of space in the chest, which can make it more difficult for the lungs to function properly.

-Children having mild scoliosis are closely monitored often with X-rays, to see if the curve is getting more severe. In many cases, no treatment is necessary. Some kids will need to wear a brace to stop the curve from worsening. Other children may need to have surgery to keep the scoliosis from worsening and to straighten severe cases of scoliosis.

Reproductive System

Reproductive- Female


Ovarian cancer- Ovarian cancer is cancer that starts in the ovaries. The ovaries are the female reproductive organs that produce eggs.Ovarian cancer symptoms are often vague. Women and their doctors often blame the symptoms on other, more common conditions. By the time the cancer is diagnosed, the tumor has often spread beyond the ovaries.
  • Bloating or swollen belly area

  • Difficulty eating or feeling full quickly

  • Pelvic or lower abdominal pain; the area may feel "heavy" to you (pelvic heaviness)

Other symptoms are also seen with ovarian cancer. However, these symptoms are also common in women who do not have cancer:
  • Abnormal menstrual cycles

  • Digestive symptoms:

    • Constipation

    • Increased gas

    • Indigestion

    • Lack of appetite

    • Nausea and vomiting

  • Unexplained back pain that worsens over time

  • Vaginal bleeding that occurs in between periods

  • Weight gain or loss

Other symptoms that can occur with this disease:
  • Excessive hair growth that is coarse and dark

  • Sudden urge to urinate

  • Needing to urinate more often than usual

  • Removal of the uterus

  • Removal of both ovaries and fallopian tubes (bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy)

  • Partial or complete removal of the omentum, the fatty layer that covers and pads organs in the abdomen

  • Examination, biopsy, or removal of the lymph nodes and other tissues in the pelvis and abdomen

Chemotherapy is used after surgery to treat any remaining disease. Chemotherapy can also be used if the cancer comes back. Chemotherapy may be given into the veins, or sometimes directly into the abdominal cavity (intraperitoneal).

The tissue lining the womb or uterus is the endometrium. This tissue grows during the menstrual cycle and is sloughed each month with the menstrual period if pregnancy does not occur. Endometriosis is a condition wherein endometrial tissue grows outside of the uterus, usually in other sites within the pelvis. The ovaries, fallopian tubes and the outside of the uterus are common sites affected by endometriosis, notes the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). The endometrial tissue in these locations undergoes the same growth and sloughing as the endometrial lining of the womb. Although endometriosis may not cause symptoms, many women experience pelvic pain with this disorder. An estimated 30 to 40 percent of women with endometriosis have difficulty conceiving.

  • There is no cure for endometriosis, but treatment can help with pain and infertility. Treatment depends on how severe your symptoms are and whether you want to get pregnant. If you have pain only, hormone therapy to lower your body's estrogen levels will shrink the implants and may reduce pain. If you want to become pregnant, having surgery, infertility treatment, or both may help.

Yeast infection

Yeast is a fungus that normally lives in the vagina in small numbers. A vaginal yeast infection means that too many yeast cells are growing in the vagina . These infections are very common. Although they can bother you a lot, they are not usually serious

  • a number of treatment options for a vaginal yeast infection, including nonprescription vaginal medicine, prescription oral or vaginal medicine, or nonprescription vaginal boric acid capsules.

Gynecologist-is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive system. almost all gynecologist are obstetricians (the medical specialty dealing with the care of all women's reproductive tracts and their children during pregnancy (prenatal period), childbirth and the postnatal period).The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Baylor College of Medicine specializes in training gynaecologist and obstetricians.


Reproductive- Male

Testicular cancer

Testicular cancer can start in one or both testicles. It is most often found in young men. This type of cancer can be treated and very often cured.The 3 main methods of treatment for testicular cancer are surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.In most cases of testicular cancer, the man has a lump on a testicle or notices that the testicle is swollen or larger. Most of the time there is no pain. Men with testicular cancer may also notice a feeling of heaviness or aching in the lower belly or scrotum.


literally “below the fleshy spike.” A condition in which the external urinary meatus (opening) opens anywhere below the tip of the penis rather than at the tip.Symptoms depend on how severe the problem is.

Usually, boys with this condition have the opening of the urethra near the tip of the penis on the underside.

More severe forms of hypospadias occur when the opening is in the middle or base of the penis. Rarely, the opening is located in or behind the scrotum.

This condition may cause a downward curve of the penis during an erection. Erections are common in infant boys.

Other symptoms include:

  • Abnormal spraying of urine
  • Having to sit down to urinate
  • Foreskin that makes the penis looks like it has a "hood"

Infants with hypospadias should not be circumcised. The foreskin should be kept for use in later surgical repair. Surgery is usually done before the child starts school. Today, most urologists recommend repair before the child is 18 months old. Surgery can be done as young as 4 months old. During the surgery, the penis is straightened and the opening is corrected using tissue grafts from the foreskin. The repair may require multiple surgeries.


Balanitis is swelling (inflammation) of the foreskin and head of the penis. Balanitis is usually caused by poor hygiene in uncircumcised men. Other possible causes include:

  • Infection
  • Harsh soaps
  • Not rinsing soap off properly while bathing
  • Uncontrolled diabetes


  • Redness of foreskin or penis
  • Other rashes on the head of the penis
  • Foul-smelling discharge
  • Painful penis and foreskin

Treatment depends on the cause of the balanitis. For example, balanitis that is caused by bacteria may be treated with antibiotic pills or creams. Balanitis that occurs with skin diseases may respond to steroid creams. Anti-fungal creams will be prescribed if it is due to a fungus.
In severe cases, circumcision may be the best option. If you cannot pull back (retract) the foreskin to clean it, you may need to be circumcised.


- A urologist is a physician who

is trained to evaluate the

genitourinary tract, which includes the

kidneys, urinary bladder and genital

structures in men and women, and the

prostate and testicles in men.

Why Urology?



eczema is an inflammatory condition of the skin. Eczema is the term used to describe changes in the upper layer of the skin that include redness, blistering, oozing, crusting, scaling, thickening and sometimes pigmentation (although not all of these changes will necessarily occur together)..eczema affects both sexes equally and usually starts in the first weeks or months of life. It is most common in children, affecting at least 10% of infants at some stage. It usually disappears during childhood, although it can carry on into adult life or come back in the teenage or early adult years. It may occasionally develop for the first time in adulthood.

there is no cure, although some creams help reduce blistering dryness and flaking

planters wart

Warts are localised thickenings of the skin, and the term ‘plantar warts’ is used for those that occur on the soles of the feet (the ‘plantar’ surface). They are also known as verrucas.Some plantar warts are uncomfortable, particularly if they are on a weight-bearing area when it may feel like having a stone in your single treatment can be guaranteed to be effective in every case to cure the warts. The highest cure rates are in young people who have not had their warts for very long. However, most verrucas will go away by themselves in due course, so it is very reasonable to leave them alone if they are not causing trouble.


Vitiligo is a condition in which areas of skin lose their normal pigment and so become white. It is common, and affects about 1% of the world’s population. symptoms include the The sun burning the pale areas very easily. This is sore, and when the burn has settled down, the pale areas of vitiligo will stand out, more strikingly than before, against a background of tanned skin.

dermatologist- A dermatologist is a qualified medical specialist who, through additional training, has obtained postgraduate qualifications to specialise in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of skin disease and skin cancers.Dermatologists treat patients of all ages, from babies and children to adolescents and adults. Although diseases of the skin are many and varied

DermTV - How to Become a Dermatologist [ Epi #243]