History Explained: Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
By Josh LeGrand
On January 18, 2021, America observed Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, a day which honors Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr, a civil rights advocate who fought against segregation in America. This article goes through the life of an activist, and his rise from a preacher from Alabama to one of the most influential people of the Civil Rights Movement.
Born on January 15, 1929 as Michael King Jr., he was the second of three children and had a sister and a brother. After his father took a trip to Germany, however, he started referring to himself as Martin Luther King, Sr., and his son Martin Luther King, Jr. King Sr. made King Jr. and his siblings regularly read aloud the Bible, and gave them whippings as discipline, sometimes making them whip each other. When Dr. King was young, he befriended a white boy whose parents had owned a business from across the street from his house. When they started school, Martin went to a school for black children, and his friend went to a school for whites. His friends' parents soon stopped letting them play together, saying “We are white, and you are colored.” When he was in his junior year, King participated in an oratorical competition, where he gave his first public speech, saying “Black America still wears chains. The finest negro is at the mercy of the meanest white man.” King was the winner of the contest. When he got on the bus to go back to his school, he and his teacher were asked to stand so the whites could sit. King refused, and the bus driver called him some names that I can’t put in this article, but after his teacher told him he’d be breaking the law if he didn’t, King complied, and they were forced to stand in the back of the bus.
World War 2 was underway, and many men were being drafted into the military, which left Morehouse College, an all-male historically black college, nearly empty. To solve this problem, Morehouse began accepting high school juniors who passed their entrance exams. After passing his entrance exam, King was accepted into the college in 1944. He would begin next autumn. The summer before, King and one of his friends traveled to Connecticut to work at a tobacco farm, which had partnered with Morehouse to “allot their salaries toward the university’s tuition”. In letters he wrote to home, he described the lack of segregation in the North. In one letter, he wrote, “After we passed Washington there was no discrimination at all. The white people here are very nice. We go to any place we want to and sit anywhere we want to". At the tobacco farm, they worked from 7 AM to 5 PM and endured temperatures up to 100°F, earning about $4 per day. At Morehouse, King played freshman football, and in the summer before his last year, he decided to go into the ministry business. At 19 years old, he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Sociology.
King then attended Crozer Theological Seminary, where he graduated with a Bachelor in Divinity, and began Doctoral Studies at Boston University. While he was in Boston, he asked one of his friends if she knew any “nice Southern girls”. The friend asked Coretta Scott, one of her classmates, if she wanted to meet a “Southern friend studying divinity”. Scott wasn’t interested in dating preachers, but she decided to let King call her. In that call, King told Coretta “I am like Napoleon at Waterloo before your charms,” and she replied “You haven’t even met me.” They went on dates in King’s green Chevy, and after the second date, King thought that Scott had all the qualities he wanted in a wife. On June 18, 1953, King married Scott on the lawn of her parents’ home. King tried to limit Scott’s role in the civil rights movement, and expected her to be a housewife and a mother. They had four children: Yolanda King, Martin Luther King III, Dexter Scott King, and Bernice King.
On March 2, 1955, 15-year-old Claudette Colvin was arrested for refusing to leave her seat on a bus for a white man. Nine months later, On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for similar reasons. The two incidents sparked the Montgomery bus boycott, led by King, in which people were encouraged not to ride the bus. One flyer read “Another woman has been arrested and thrown in jail because she refused to get up out of her seat on the bus for a white person to sit down...This woman's case will come up on Monday. We are, therefore, asking every Negro to stay off the buses Monday in protest of the arrest and trial. Don't ride the buses to work, to town, to school, or anywhere on Monday...If you work, take a cab, or walk. But please, children and grown-ups, don't ride the bus at all on Monday.” The boycott ended up lasting 385 days, during which people of color walked, biked, or took cabs to school or work. It became so tense at one point that King’s house was bombed. Finally, in the case Browder vs. Gale, segregation in buses was removed.
After an assassination attempt in 1958, King continued to hold rallies and give speeches in big cities like Albany, Birmingham, St. Augustine, Chicago, and New York throughout the 60s. He gave his most famous speech in Washington, D.C. during the March on Washington, which campaigned for an end to segregation in schools, racial discrimination in employment, a minimum wage of $2 (worth $17 today), and self-government for Washington. There, at the front of the Lincoln Memorial, Martin Luther King, Jr. departed from his original passage and delivered one of the most famous and influential speeches in the history of the United States:
I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.”
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification; one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.
I have a dream today.
King held more rallies, gave more speeches, and got arrested 27 times. After Bloody Sunday in Selma in 1965, where police responded to peaceful protests with violence, King delivered a speech that became known as “How Long? Not Long”, in which he proclaimed, "The battle is in our hands. And we can answer with creative nonviolence the call to higher ground to which the new directions of our struggle summons us. The road ahead is not altogether a smooth one. There are no broad highways that lead us easily and inevitably to quick solutions. But we must keep going." He openly opposed the Vietnam war, saying that the U.S. “was in Vietnam to occupy it as a American colony” and calling the U.S. Government “the greatest purveyor of violence today”.
King organized a Poor People’s Campaign in 1968 to “address issues of economic justice”. But neither King nor the rest of his family knew that tragedy would strike that year, and that it would impact the United States greatly.
King went to Memphis, Tennessee on March 29, 1968 to support black sanitation workers who had been on strike for better wages and better treatment. His flight was delayed due to a bomb threat, but he still made it to Memphis, where he delivered his final speech, “I’ve Been To The Mountaintop”. King had booked room 306 of the Lorraine Motel, where he was living with fellow civil rights leader, Ralph Abernathy. At 6:01 PM, on April 4, as King stood on the balcony of his hotel room, someone watched from his boarding house room. James Earl Ray, rifle in hand, trained the gun at King, and pulled the trigger.
King was shot, and one hour later, at 7:01 PM, passed away. James Earl Ray was caught and sentenced to 99 years in prison. King’s assassination led to riots and several conspiracy theories. At his funeral, his last sermon at his father’s church was played, and Mahalia Jackson, one of his good friends, sang his favorite hymn, “Take My Hand, Precious Lord”. The vice-president at the time, Hubert Humphrey, attended the ceremony on behalf of President Lyndon B. Johnson, who didn’t attend because he thought it might incite protests and violence. President Johnson declared April 7 a national day of mourning for King. During his lifetime and after his death, King won more than 50 different awards, including the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. At the time, he was the youngest person ever to win that award. President Jimmy Carter awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Shortly after King’s death, the U.S. Government passed the Civil Rights Act, which ended segregation everywhere. He was buried at the Martin Luther King Jr. National Historical Park in Atlanta, Georgia. In 1971, the third Monday of every January, Martin Luther King Jr. Day was made a holiday. In 1986, it was made a federal holiday. On that day, people get a day off from work and kids get a day off from school. There are marches in many places around the United States. Martin Luther King Jr. will always be remembered for his opposition of violence, his moving speeches and his aid in the Civil Rights Movement. Most importantly, he will be remembered for his permanent impact on the United States, and the rest of the world.
Getting to Know Overlook
I am going to be interviewing a new staff member to Overlook Mrs.Toomey! She is a 6th grade Social Studies teacher and she is on the Green Team.
Me:Ok so for starters how long have you been teaching for?
Mrs.Toomey: “4 years. I didn’t like my job in 2016 and my parents said try teaching you would be good at that.”
Me:Why did you decide to be a history teacher?
Mrs.Toomey: “ I have always loved history,I loved it as a kid.I would always think about going back in history.”
Me:Did you teach any other subjects before history?
Mrs.Toomey: “I was an English teacher while still being a Social Studies teacher.”
Me:How many other schools did you teach at before Overlook?
Mrs.Toomey. “I have taught at 2 other schools before Overlook.”
Me:Is it difficult being a teacher during Covid times?
Mrs.Toomey: “Umm honestly no I would say it's different but not hard.”
Me:Is it hard coming up with assignments for Google Classroom?
Mrs.Toomey: “The only thing that’s hard is not monitoring. I don't want it to be too long or too short.”
Me: What’s the best part about being a teacher?
Mrs.Toomey: “Definitely the students. I feel like I could teach any subject because with you guys it's fun.”
Me: What’s the worst part about being a teacher?
Mrs.Toomey: “Waking up early in the morning.”
Me: What’s the funniest moment you’ve had in teaching?
Mrs.Toomey: “Honestly your class secret society joke.”
Me: Since you began teaching have you ever thought about going down a different career path?
Mrs.Toomey: “No, never once I discovered teaching I realized it was the career for me.”
Me:What’s something you wish you would have known on your first year of teaching?
Mrs.Toomey: “I wish I was more organized.”
Me: What’s the best advice you have been given on teaching?
Mrs.Toomey: “First get to know your students.”
Me: Is it weird to have to teach a lesson on Monday and Tuesday then have to re-teach it on Thursday and Friday?
Mrs.Toomey: “No it’s actually fun!”
Well thank you for reading and thank you Mrs. Toomey for letting me interview you! I hope Overlook treats you well!!
This Month In History
January Historical Events
By Karl Sargent
Jan. 1, 1502: Portuguese colonist land in Guanabara Bay in South America and name it Rio de Janeiro. Today, Rio de Janeiro has 6.7 Million people.
Jan. 1, 1993: Czechoslovakia splits in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Jan. 3, 1924: King Tut’s tomb in Egypt is discovered by Howard Carter, who was a British Egyptologist
Jan. 6, 1066: Harold Godwinson, last of the Anglo-Saxon English kings, is crowned king after the death of his brother-in-law, known as Edward The Confessor.
Jan. 11, 1755: Alexander Hamilton is born.
Jan. 20, 1945: FDR begins a fourth presidential term
Jan. 16, 1547: Ivan the Terrible crowned himself The first Czar of Russia.
Jan. 24, 41 CE: Roman Emperor Caligula is killed.
Jan. 17, 1945: Warsaw, Poland, is freed from Germany by the Russian army
Jan. 1, 1877: Queen Victoria became the Empress of India.
School Club Corner
Clubs To Join At Overlook
By- Stella Deschenes
I am going to be telling you about all the clubs that you are able to join at Overlook. Although there limited clubs this year due to the pandemic, there are still some that you could join!
This year there is a Baking Club! Baking Club meets every Wednesday at 12:30. The Baking Club is run by Nadalee Madhere, Mrs.Rheaume, and Jocelyn Croteau. On the last Wednesday of the month you have something in the Baking Club you created.
Yearbook is a group of students who get assignments to complete pages that will eventually end up in the yearbook. They meet every Wednesday at 11:30. Mr.Young runs the yearbook.
Drama is a club that meets every Wednesday at 11:00. Drama Club is rehearsing for a play called 10 Ways to Survive in Quarantine.This eventually will be a remote play recording. Drama Club is run by Ms. Daigle.
This isn’t a club but if you would like to help with the morning announcements you can as well!
Then of course there is Wingspan Newspaper. Wingspan meets every month. You can pick some sort of story, then by the end of the month you can read what everyone else did. Wingspan is run by Mr.Duncan.
I do not know much about Book Club since it is a fairly new club, but if you ask the principal or your teacher I’m sure they can give you more information about it.
I also don’t know much about this club but like I said before, ask the principal or your teacher to see if they have more information.
Obviously all of these clubs are virtual this year. I am not sure if the teachers and students are accepting more people right now, but email any of the teachers or students to ask! As always thank you for reading!
The Time Files Part III
By Karl Sargent
Thomas’s first look into Michigan included a paved road to his right, and a small pond to his left. He looked around, to see a small group of trees. In his folder there had been one hundred US dollars to spend in the mission. Thomas put the money in his pocket. He walked towards the road to see if it would lead to anywhere that might prove useful. On the road, there were two signs. One stated, “Town of Fall’s Landing in 1.5 mi.” The other sign read, “No unauthorized personnel or pedestrians on this road. Violators will be shot.” Thomas shuddered. This entire area was under Eonian occupation, and the local people couldn’t do anything about it. Protesting of any kind was illegal in the Eon Empire, as well as freedom of speech. Thomas backed away from the road, so as to not be seen. He guessed that Harvey had patrols along this road.
Thomas got a call on his radio. He turned it on. “Hey, Kid, this is Bates.”
“Hello, General. I’ve just landed in Michigan,” Thomas stated.
“Good. There should be a town called Fall’s Landing near you, I’d start there. But be careful. Our scouts in the region report Sean has gotten hold of that town, and he has stationed soldiers and armed vehicles there. Try not to get caught. Some of our scouts have gone missing.”
Thomas took a deep breath. “This Harvey guy, do we know anything else about him?”
“Sadly, no. Well, I should leave you to it. Bye.”
Thomas put the radio back into his pocket, and began to follow the road, while staying hidden in the trees. Thomas heard a vehicle coming. He looked around a bend in the road to see a truck coming his way. On the doors there was a print of the Eonian flag, a navy blue field with two stripes at the center, one red and one black, travelling vertically. There was a person standing in the back, holding onto a mounted phase-machine gun, and a person in the passenger seat adjacent to the driver. About twenty feet from where Thomas was standing, the truck came to a stop. The driver stepped out. He was wearing a green vest with a green pair of pants, and a green helmet. He was armed with a phase rifle.
“One day, I’ll go to the Special Forces and get outta here,” he said.
“You wish,” the person in the passenger seat said. She snickered.
“I heard somethin’ out here,” said the driver. Thomas pulled out his phase pistol, preparing for a fight. As the driver inched closer, Thomas fired. Instantly, the man faded into dust. Thomas picked up his weapon.
“What the?,” the passenger said as she stepped out of the truck, aiming her phase rifle at him. Thomas quickly shot, eliminating her as well. He jumped in front of the truck to avoid being shot by the machine gun. He crawled under to the back of the truck, looked up at the gunner, and fired. But the gunner wasn't there.
“What?” Thomas asked himself. He felt a kick from behind him. He fell over, and the gunner was aiming a phase pistol right at him. Thomas kicked him in the stomach, and he fell backwards. Thomas picked up his phase rifle and shot him. Thomas took a deep breath and walked towards the driver’s seat of the truck. The keys were still in it and it was running, so he got in, and began driving towards Fall’s Landing.
When Thomas reached Fall’s Landing, he noticed that the town appeared to be safe, because there were no soldiers, but he knew it was a trap. He looked around to see a diner and a store. “I should disguise myself as a regular in this town,” he said to himself. So he parked the truck near the store, and walked in. He was wearing a grey suit, with a grey tie. He was an agent, not a soldier, and on some missions, agents wore suits.
In the store, Thomas bought a dark green sweatshirt, jeans, boots, and a camouflage hat. He brought his picks to the cashier's desk. “Hello,” the cashier said.
“Hi. I would like to buy these,” Thomas replied. He placed the clothes on the desk.
“That’ll be 35 dollars.” He took some of the money out of his pocket, counted it, and put it on the counter. Thomas smiled at the cashier, and left the store.
He walked to the truck, unlocked it, and got in. He changed clothes inside of the vehicle. He looked in the back. There was a weapon. “Is that a phase bow?” Thomas took the weapon, and held it. There was a small switch that read ON/OFF, so he flicked it on. Instantly, a glowing blue arrow appeared in the bow, ready to shoot. He flicked the lever off, and put the bow in the back, covered by his suit jacket. He opened the door, and disembarked from the truck. He locked it, and ran over to the diner.
As Thomas got inside, he heard the clanging noise of forks and knives. He sat at one of the tables, and a few moments later a waiter came to him. “What can I get for you today?”
Thomas looked at the menu. “I’ll have Eggs Benedict, please.”
“Okay. I’ll be back soon with your order.”
Thomas looked out the window to see a military truck pull over. He relaxed, so as not to give himself away to the Eonian soldiers. The three soldiers walked into the diner. Thomas realized that he had driven there by military truck, and when the soldiers realized that there were no other soldiers in the building, they would become suspicious. One soldier leaned over to another. “There’s no more of us in here,” he said.
“Strange. We didn't hear back from that patrol a while ago. Something’s up here,” the soldier stated. She walked around the room, to confirm the absence of other soldiers. She picked up her radio. “Captain, there might be a situation near the diner. There may be a criminal around here.”
“It’s probably nothing,” the Captain responded, through the radio. “Although it might have something to do with the missing patrol. Stay alert, officer.”
“Will do, Captain.” the soldier said. She turned the radio off. Thomas got up to leave. As he walked through the door, one of the soldiers looked at him.
After Thomas had left, that soldier walked to his superior. “That kid sure took off quickly. We should follow him.”
Thomas got in the truck and drove down the road, humming a tune. He got another call from his radio. This time, it was Bridget. “Hey Thomas. I did some scouting in Harvey’s area a few months ago, and I think if you want to learn about him, you should go to the Eastside Refinery. It’s where Sean has a large amount of metal made. Stopping that place would slow down his operation quite a bit. It’s to the east of Fall’s Landing, if you’re near there. If you’re goin’ there, be careful. That place is heavily guarded, Thomas.”
“Thanks,” Thomas responded. He turned off his radio, and made his way towards the refinery. The truck’s compass stated that he was travelling east, so he continued. He looked in the mirror, and the other truck from the diner was following him. He became nervous. As the buildings stopped, and forest took over the surrounding landscape, Thomas looked once again in the mirror. The truck was still behind him. He decided he would drive deep into the woods, to lose the enemies. He took a sharp left into the forest, and drove fast. The truck
followed, but slower. Thomas was in danger of hitting a tree, because he was going fast and the forest was dense. He jumped out from the truck with his new phase bow, and ran towards the distant light that was the Eastside Refinery. The people in the truck behind him got out, but they ran towards Thomas’s truck. Thomas sprinted, and the light was getting brighter. Finally, he saw the large refinery, with guards all around it. There was a guard near him, so he took out his phase bow, and switched it on. He shot and hit the soldier. The soldier faded away. The arrow reappeared in the bow. Thomas ran to where the soldier had been. There was a box of matches where the soldier stood. Thomas picked up the matches. Four Eonian vans arrived into the Refinery, and twelve people exited the vans. They all had heat suits on, and carried bags of what Thomas assumed was iron. He walked to the Refinery as the people opened the doors. He went into one of the vans, seeing a heat suit and a can of gasoline for the van. He put the suit on, and took the can. Thomas was hidden in plain sight now. He walked into the refinery, and saw a room labeled “Furnace Room”. He waited until the ore deliverers were gone to walk into the room. He would destroy the furnaces with gasoline. After about two whole minutes, the group of ore deliverers walked through the main room in the refinery. Thomas stayed hidden behind a wall. The group said nothing, they just walked. He walked through the doors into the furnace room. At the furnaces, Thomas started to pour gasoline directly under all of the furnaces, as well as on them. He took a single match from the soldier’s matchbox, lit it, and dropped it onto the gas. Thomas threw the whole matchbox onto the floor. The fire spread, and Thomas ran out of the building. The trucks were already down the road. He ran into the woods, and took the heat suit off.
Thomas decided to call Bates on his radio. He punched in the number, and pressed the call button. Moments later, Bates turned on his radio. “Hey, kid,” he said.
“Hi, General. Bridget told me about the Eastside Refinery. I want you to know I just destroyed the furnaces in the place,” Thomas stated.
“That’s great, but listen, Sean is gonna get mad about this. He’s got these soldiers. Calls ‘em ‘Stalkers’. Some of our spies have gone missing in this region, and we suspect these Stalkers of causing them to disappear. One second, you’re just walking around, and the next second, you are gone. Just be careful, and thanks so much for gettin’ rid of the Refinery. Bye.”
“Goodbye.” Thomas looked around him, for these so-called “Stalkers''. He ran to his truck, and he was glad to see that the soldiers from before were gone. He walked into the truck and put his phase bow in the back seat. He drove out of the woods, and back down the street towards Fall’s Landing. While traveling on the road, the truck stopped. It was out of gas. “Dang it!” Thomas grumbled, as he got out of the truck to put more fuel in it. Luckily, Eonian trucks had a gas tank for refills in the back. As he walked over to the back, he felt a sharp pain in his leg. Thomas looked down, to see a dart in his leg. He started to see double, and then he collapsed on the road. The last thing he saw was a shadowy figure looming over him, and felt himself being picked up.
Thomas awoke to see two heavily armed guards, like the ones he saw at the battle long ago. But these ones had blue berets, instead of red ones. He was in a cage, in a very ill-lit room. He tried to talk, but he couldn’t. His mouth was not covered, he just could not talk. “Sir. The rebel is awake.” There was someone behind the two soldiers, but he wasn’t visible.
“So. This is who took out the refinery. A child.” It was Sean Harvey. Thomas knew it. He had a faint southern accent that Thomas could only hear at times. “You must be working for The Resistance. You’ve been blinded by Bates’s arrogance. Let me tell you how this works. We, the great Eon Empire, have been trying to build a perfect society for years now. Humanity has become weak, and Henry is rebuilding the strength that we need. And your friends, The Resistance, keep getting in the way. You see Thomas, the Resistance is weak. The Empire is strong. And when the Wolves get to you and destroy your base, you’ll see what I mean. You’ll see. And I’ll be there.” He stopped talking. “Put this child in the test. If he wins, set him free. And if he loses, he is to become a Wolf.”
One of the soldiers spoke up. “Sir, are you sure that we should-” He was shot, by Sean, and faded away. The other soldier shot Thomas with the stun setting, and Thomas once again fell unconscious.
By- Olivia Fuller
Queen Anemone was sitting on her throne. She had already beaten her mother, Queen Coral, In a proper duel. Queen Anemone had not seen her big sister ,Tsunami in years. Her other little sister, Princess Auklet was almost old enough to challenge Queen Anemone. Webs had been cured from the Sandwing venom, and was sent back to the Kingdom Of The Sea to become the new guard for the Royal Hatchery. Webs had not failed yet, But Queen Anemone had a feeling that he would fail very soon.There had been no reports on attacking Skywings ever since the Bombing of the Summer Palace.
Even though the Summer Palace had been rebuilt, and reinforced, Queen Anemone put extra guards at each guard post, just in case of attack. She also sent more guards to do a patrol in the Bay Of A Thousand Scales.
The Sandwing queen had been chosen, the war had ended, The Dragonet Prophecy had been fulfilled, and Morrowseer was dead, so the Talons Of Peace were disbanded. Suddenly Queen Anemone heard a booming outside of the Deep Palace, so she sent Riptide out to check on the Royal Hatchery, and there it was. Princess Orca’s Animus statue had rebuilt itself, and it had smashed 1 out of 3 eggs that she had laid. Webs had not been punished, because Queen Anemone knew that it was not his fault. Queen Anemone was glad Whirlpool was dead, he had made her use her Animus magic for stupid things, like once he told her to make a pearl necklace move around like a snake.
To Be Continued...