Decolonization

Kayla Jefferies, Beyonce Green, Linh Nguyen 3rd Period

Movements for Freedom and Growth in Asia and Africa

After World War II, there were movements for freedom to end European rule. During the Cold War which was to have a democratic system, it was hard for Western power to make their rules after World War II to work with their ruler's rules. This made people want freedom because they didn't like how they were treated.

India

Because Indians felt like they were being treated poorly, they made a group that stood for them getting more rights. They also made a second group for Indians that were Muslims. They were peacefully supporting their beliefs, and were killed. When people heard about this, they all joined together so they could do something about it. A person named Gandhi told everyone to fight the rules without hurting anyone. For example, they wouldn't use things made by the British. Also, the Hindus and the Muslims were fighting. Gandhi wanted them to be friends again, but the Muslims made a separate country called Pakistan.

Fight against Britain was won

After World War Two, they won the fight against Britain, but after that the people who supported the religions of Hindu and Islam started to kill each other, because of two different point-of-views. Gandhi liked the first idea which was for Hindus and Muslims to join together and practice there religions. The second one was to just keep them apart to save lives. The British liked that idea, and broke the country into three parts; India in the South and the two parts of Pakistan in the North. Many people left India in fear of violence. Gandhi was killed by someone who disagreed with him, and the countries are still fighting today. They both are now much more powerful and more able to hurt the others.

Africa

Africa really wanted their independence too, after seeing India get theirs. South Africa belonged to Britain, but they took care of themselves most of the time. South Africans made a group that disagreed with British, and some African, rules. They worked to undo them. Many African countries began to win their independence, though some of them were still close to Britain. The person in charge of the Egyptian Army, got rid of the king and made a republic. Everyone wanted independence and the people there didn't learn a lot. There weren't enough smart people.

Rwanda's Division

Racial differences, mass killings, and differences over human rights in Rwanda all stemmed from the Tusi and Hutu, in which the Tusi governed the Hutu people. After Rwanda's victory over Germany and Belgium colonist , the Hutu people started to go against Tusi rules. This caused both groups of people to kill one another and make things bitter among each other and because of the country's small population of 7 million people the affect of this division became one of the most devastating times in history.

The Rise and Fall of Apartheid

The Union of South Africa was created with two British colonies, in which they gave rights to self-government, but they did not include or mention any black people in the process. Then many years later in 1923 the government put into place racial separation of black people and white people, where blacks didn't legally have the same opportunities as the whites did. Once South Africa achieved victory over colonists , the problem with racial separation and self-rights even more expanded when apartheid came along in 1943 in an attempt to even more separate races of white and black. A change came along when Nelson Mandela was made leader of the African National Congress in the 1950's. Mandela encouraged people to act in peaceful protests to help stop apartheid from continuing . Mandela was later arrested in the 1960's , but was released years later.

The Middle East

After the Ottoman Empire ended and the creation of Turkey at the end of World War I, the Middle East controlled the League of Nations. France controlled Syria and Lebanon and Britain controlled Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq. Persia learned from Britain and Russia during the nineteenth century. Arabia was came together as a Saudi kingdom. The Middle East helped make Israel modern.

A Lot of Oil

The Middle East had a lot of oil since the beginning of civilization, which became important after the Industrial Revolution. The Middle Eastern government (like Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, and Iraq) made a lot of money from selling their oil. Oil was important because it was used as fuel. In 1960, the Middle East came together with other places that sold oil and made a group called OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries). They made a lot of money and used it to make their buildings better.