The Mystery of Redemption

Theology II 1st Semester Exam

In the Beginning

The Original State of Man

God created the first humans to share in his love and friendship. The original humans, Adam and Eve, possessed a clear awareness of God's presence. They were exceedingly happy, and were destined for a perfect life in heaven.


Original Sin

Adam and Eve were granted complete freedom in their paradise, the Garden of Eden. They only had one limitation: they were not to eat the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. At one point, the fallen angel, Lucifer, entered the garden. He then tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, which Eve then shared with Adam. This was the original sin, or disobedience, and the belief that humanity knew better than God.


Consequences of Original Sin

After eating the forbidden fruit, Adam and Eve became aware of their nudity, and hid from God. Therefore, God knew that they had eaten of the fruit and removed them from the garden. As a punishment for committing original sin, God made it so that women would experience pain in childbirth, work would require toil and often end in futility, humanity would experience sickness and death, and upon death, the body and soul will be separated.

The Incarnation

The Word Became Flesh

God sent his only son, Jesus Christ, to become man, live among us, and die to save us from our sins. Their are four primary reasons for the sacrifices of Christ:


  • to make expiation for sins, reconcile man with God, and restore human nature lost by sin.
  • to manifest the infinite depth of God's love.
  • to offer a model of holiness.
  • to allow people to share in his divine life.
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The Paschal Mystery

The Baptism of Christ

Jesus began his ministry, and started down the path to the cross, around the age of thirty. He began, with his baptism in the River Jordan, performed by John the Baptist. Although Jesus was without original sin, and had no need to be baptized, he did so to set an example for all of us.


The Wedding at Cana

Christ performed his first miracle when a wedding party ran out of wine. At the request of his mother, Mary, he transmuted water into wine, saving the wedding.


Christ Manifests His Divinity

In order to convince his disciples of the necessity of his death, Christ worked an unprecedented miracle to manifest directly his divine nature. In doing this, Christ was seen in his glorified state. This is called the Transfiguration.


The Last Supper

Before Christ's death, he had a final Passover meal with his disciples. This has become know as the last supper. During the last supper, Christ broke bread, and instituted the Eucharist.


The Agony in the Garden

After the last supper, Christ brought the of his closest disciples to the Garden of Gethsemane. There, he prayed to his father for the strength to go through with his death. Although he was tempted to give up, and resist his fate, he was strong, and accepted his death.


The Crucifixion

Jesus was sentenced to death by Pilate, and was forced to carry his own heavy cross from Pilate's Praetorium to Golgotha. Christ fell three times, and was eventually assisted by St. St. Simon of Cyrene. He was fixed to the cross with nails, and eventually died of asphyxiation. With his last dying breath, he uttered the words "It is finished."


The Resurrection

After remaining dead for three days, Christ came back from the dead in his new glorified body. He was not subject to the suffering or the strictures of faith and time.


The Ascension

Forty days after the resurrection, Christ was assumed, body and soul, into heaven. Christ is now seated at the right hand of the Father.

The Theological Virtues

Faith

Faith is the theological virtue by which we believe in God, and believe all that he has said and revealed to us, and that the Holy Church proposes for our belief, because he is truth itself. (CCC 1814)


Hope

The virtue of hope is the confident expectation God will give the capacity to respond to his love so as to achieve a life of sanctity.


Charity

Charity is the theological virtue by which we love God above all things for his own sake, and our neighbor as ourselves for the love of God. (CCC 1822)

Prayer

Prayer is a Dialogue With God

Prayer is means of conversation with God. Although it may seem one sided, God always responds. The answer may come in a way that you were not expecting, and sometimes, the answer is simply no.


Forms of Prayer

Vocal prayer is prayer that uses words, contemplative prayer keeps a person in God's presence as they abide in his love, and meditative prayer is used to gain a greater understanding of a particular mystery of faith, as well as how this mystery can be applied to our lives.

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The Four Marks of the Church

One

The Church is one, in it's uniqueness, it was the single Church instituted by Christ. Also, we worship only one God, in three persons. Lastly, the Church is unified as one body.


Holy

The Church receives her holiness from Christ, her founder. Christ sanctifies the Church, and fills it with grace. Therefore, those who receive the sacraments through the church, can receive her grace.


Catholic

The Church is catholic in the sense that she is universal. The Church is whole and complete, and holds universal authority to fulfill Christ's mission.


Apostolic

The Church is apostolic, because she is founded on Jesus's Twelve Apostles. She was founded by the apostles, transmits the teachings of the apostles, and continues to be directed by the successors of the apostles in the pastoral ministry.

The Last Things

Death

At death, the soul leaves the body and is judged immediately by God. From there, the soul will proceed to Heaven, Hell, or Purgatory as deserved.


Particular Judgement

After death, each man receives his eternal retribution. He immediately refers his life to Christ, going through a period of purification, directly to his definitive state in heaven, or to eternal condemnation.


Purgatory

Purgatory is a state of purification from venial sins so that souls may achieve the purity required to enter the Kingdom of Heaven. Purgatory is not a permanent state, but will last until every trace of attachment to evil is eliminated.


Hell

Hell is a state of complete and total separation from God, for those who have freely chosen to deny God's love. Souls in Hell dies unrepentant of mortal sins, and refused God's love and mercy to the end.


Heaven

Heaven is a state of everlasting life, in which we can see God, become like him in Glory, and enjoy eternal happiness. All souls on earth have made up for their sins either on earth or in Purgatory, and are in the light of glory, with an immediate vision of God.

The Parousia

The Parousia is a Greek word meaning "apparition", or "presence". It is the Second Coming of the Lord, where Christ will appear in power and majesty as a judge and establish his kingdom in all its fullness. The Parousia marks the definitive triumph of Christ over sin and death.
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