Response to Intervention

Intensive support for struggling students

Overview of RTI

1. "Providing high-quality instruction/ intervention matched to the needs of students." (Klinger, Hoover & Baca, 2008).

2. "Using students' learning rate over time and level of performance (for ongoing decision making)" (Klinger, Hoover & Baca, 2008).

3. "Making important educational decisions" (Klinger, Hoover & Baca, 2008).

RTI Model

"RTI is a way to provide early intervention to students who show signs of struggling and potentially to identify those who have learning disabilities. RTI offers an alternative to the discrepancy-base identification models of the past that require students to demonstrate a significant gap between their potential, as determined with an IQ test, and their academic achievement, as measured with an achievement test" (Klinger, Hoover & Baca, 2008).

Three-Tier Instructional Characteristics

Assumptions Underlying RTI That May Be Problematic With ELLS


1." "Evidence-based instruction" is good instruction for everyone

  • Numerous instructional approaches recommended as being evidence based have not actually been validated or tried out with ELLs or in school contexts similar to those in which many ELLs are educated" (Klinger, Hoover & Baca, 2008). .

2. "Learning to read in one's second language is similar to learning to read in one's first language: therefore, instructional approaches that have been found through research to be effective with mainstream English speaking students are appropriate for serving ELLS"(Klinger, Hoover & Baca, 2008).

  • "ELLs benefit from additional oral language instruction. Districts should provide professional development in teaching reading to ELLs" (Klinger, Hoover & Baca, 2008).

3. "Students who fail to respond to research-based instruction have some sort of learning problem or internal deficit, and perhaps even a learning disability (Klinger, Hoover & Baca, 2008).

  • "There are many reasons a child may not respond to a particular instructional approach. It could be that the method is not an effective on with this child, and a different approach would yield much better results. Or, the level of instruction might not be a good match for the child" (Klinger, Hoover & Baca, 2008).

RTI Connections

RTI Network -

Klingner, J. K., Hoover, J. J., & Baca, L. M. (2008). Why do English language learners struggle with reading?: Distinguishing language acquisition from learning disabilities. Corwin Press.