Mid-Year Review

Chemistry, Earth History, Microorganisms & Lithorsphere

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Part 2...

Metals: These are most abudment Elements. Metals brake into 3 types Alkali-metals, Alkaline-earth Metals, Transition metals, Lanthanides and Actinides.

Non-metals: These are elements that are not metals. Examples: Noble gases and Halogens.

Metalloids: Elements that have properties of non-metals and metals (there semiconductors of electricity)

Atomic number: The number of protons at the nucleus of a atom. This number determines the place at where the element is positioned in the periodic table.

Atomic mass: This number determines (or says) the mass of its atom.

Protons: positively charged subatomic particles that are found at the center of a atoms nucleus.

Neutrons: Subatomic particles that have a neutral charge. These are found in the nucleus of a atom.

Electrons: These are subatomic particles that have a negative charge. They are found normally going around atoms.

Law of Conservation of Mass: This law states that matter can not be created or destroyed. Example: You can not make a pencil out of nothing nether can you make

Compound: The chemical combination of 2 or more elements.

Element: A substance made up of one type of atom.

Solution: A substance made as the result of a mixture of a liquid and a solid. The solid dissolves in the liquid.

Atom: The basic compound building block of all matter.

Matter: Any thing that takes up space.

Mixture: When 2 or more substances are physically combined (mixed).

Earth History...

Law of Super Position: This law states that the youngest rock layer must be located first (at the top) and the oldest must be located last (at the bottom).

Index Fossils: Fossils that help determine the age of another fossil or a rock layer.

Ice Cores: Long cylinder shaped pieces of ice that help determine the atmospheric make up and how it was of certain time eras.

Geologic time scale: A time scale that list geologic time periods of the past and present. Like the era of the Dinosaurs and the rise of mammals.

Relative dating: This is a way of getting a idea of how old a fossil is or a rock layer that involves a index fossil. For example you find a certain fossil in a rock in South America and you find the same type of fossil in Europe you can only state that the rock layers the fossil was found are from the same time period.

Absolute Dating: This method of dating dates things by measuring the break down of carbon 14 in fossils. This method involves the use of half-life's.

Half-life's: This is the measuring of the break down of Carbon 14. Every time carbon 14 breaks down it changes into a different element. For example It takes 5730 years for C14 to break down 50%. Then if it breaks down again it will take another 5730 years for a total of 11460 years. If scientist find a fossil with 50% C14 then they know its 5730 years old.


Fossil Record: A record of the total number of fossils that have been discovered. Example: Scientist record every fossil they find.

Geology: The study of the origin, History and the structure of the Earth. Example: A scientist who study's rocks is a Geology thing.

Uniformitarianism: The idea that laws here don't only happen here but also every were else in the universe and will keep happening. Example: Gravity affects every thing in the universe and just about space.

Infections Disease...

Microorganisms: Microscopic organisms that can be good to your body and nature or cause diseases. Example: Bacteria

Virus: A microorganism that has a nucleias that causes disease that can not be cured with medication. Virus: Ebola

Bacteria: A microorganism that has no nucleias but instead it has genetic material. It can either do you good of cause you disease. It can be cured with antibiotics. Example: Strep throat.

Fungi: A organism that eats of organic material (died organic material). Example: mushrooms.

Parasites: A organism that eats of or lives another organism. Example: Ticks.

Epidemic Vs. Pandemic: A epidemic is the full fledged spread of a disease over a small region like a neighborhood or country. A pandemic is the full fledged spread of a disease over the entire world. It affects more than one country. A pandemic is a much worse problem.

Prevention/Treatment: To prevent a disease you will need a vaccine (for a viral disease). A viral disease is fought of by your body. You cant prevent a Bacterial disease but you can cure it with antibiotics. Thoe every year bacterial diseases evolve to resist antibiotics. Thats why scientist are always looking for new vaccines.