How Does The Internet Work?
In Shortened Steps.
Router connects to internet by Internet Service Provider (telephone line).
Computer's browser (Firefox, Chrome, etc...) requests web page via URL.
Web page works on http protocol and servers name.
Browser on computer uses ISP which uses Domain Name Server (DNS) and requests a list of all website names registered.
DNS returns with website's real name with an IP address formatted in IPv4. (111.222.333.444.555.)