What are these things?

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) & RNA(ribonucleic acid)

DNA is the fundamental characteristics or qualities of someone or something. RNA is a messenger that carries instructions from DNA for controlling proteins.
DNA passes characteristics from parent to offspring this is heredity. DNA replicates when the double helix is unwound and each strand acts as a template for the next strand. During the process of transcription, the information stored in a gene’s DNA is transferred to a similar molecule called RNA (ribonucleic acid) in the cell nucleus.